Feed productivity of the clover depending on the technology of cultivation in the Right-bank Forest-Steppe

G. I. Demidas, I. V. Galushko

Анотація


One of the main tasks of the agroindustrial complex in Ukraine is the formation of a stableand high quality feed base for the livestock sector, which is directly related to the increase in the productivity of intensive varietis of the clover and the improvement of feed quality due to intensification factors. When applying intensive technologies of growing field crops in crop production, obtaining permanent crops of  fodder crops due to the introduction of biological nitrogen from the atmosphere of the air. It is known that the main feature of perennial herbs is durability, rapid vegetative restoration after mowing, high adaptability to growing conditions and increase of soil fertility. One of the ways to solve this problem is to provide livestock with fodder  protein at the expense of expanding the  area of perennial legume grass, including at the expanse of the cranberry clover. It is already known than the leaf mass of the clover is characterized by high digestibility, high content of vitamins, especially carotene and minerals. Eagerly eats livestock and grows well after mowing and grazing. The biological features of the clover and the favorable soil-climatic conditions of the region determine   the further expansion of its crops in the zone of the Forest-steppe right bank. However, the existing technology of growing clove for feed purpose does not allow to fully utilize the genetic potential of new varieties. There reaction of varieties of the clover of the rayon to the method of growing in the first year of life and fertilization, taking into account the hydrothermal resources of the region, is still not sufficiently studied.
When cultivating  the clover for feeding purposes, the  question arises as to the justification of expediency of using the cover culture in the first year of its life, application of mineral fertilizers and inoculation of seeds with bacterial preparations.  Most favorable for the growth and development of the clover rayon areas with a moderate and fairly damp climate. She is very picky for the presence of moisture, so in dry years, less productive. In areas of sufficient moisture is quite good even on low-crop soil. Waterlogging and stagnation of water in the fields have a detrimental effect on the development of the clover. Seeds for germination require a lot of water (up to 300% of their own weight) and begins to sprout at a temperature of 2 ° С. Optimum temperature for growth and development - 15-20 ° С. High photosynthetic activity of plants is observed at a temperature of 25 ° С. The clover of the first year of use grows somewhat earlier than the second one, and the early fall - before the late-fall. The first slope of an early-grated clover on hay can be obtained approximately after 55 - 60 days after spring regrowth (for the sum of temperatures 770 - 995 ° C), the second - in 40 - 50 days after the first (for the sum of temperatures 600 - 800 ° C). The complete maturity of the grains comes in 100-110 days after the spring regrowth, and after the first slope - in 68 - 90 days. The clover is one of the most valuable forage crops. This species forms two for vegetation, and in warm and wet years there are three or more slopes. The yield of its green mass in two slopes is on average 30-50 t / ha, hay - 5-10 t / ha, seeds - 0,3 - 0,4 t / ha. The cranberry racemeter is characterized by high nutritional value, versatility and excellent eating. In 100 kilograms of hay, the cranberry clover contains 52.2 feed units. The fodder value of the clover is higher than many fodder crops: 2 kg of hay is equivalent to 1 kg of oats. The cranberry fairy well tolerates shading in the year of sowing, which allows it to grow under the cover of spring crops. This feature greatly simplifies the creation of grass clover, which does not require the use of certain specific
technological techniques, including the regulation of the number of weeds, the application of herbicides, highly effective for weeds and selective to legumes.  Undercrop cultivation of the clover allows you to get a full harvest of the cover culture, while other legumes, as a rule, do not form a full harvest in a year, therefore there is no loss of a year without crop. In addition, clover cultivation in the year of sowing does not result in a decrease in its productivity in subsequent years of vegetation, which is the main advantage of sub-cultivation of this crop.         Сonclusion. The growth of the cranberry clover improves the chemical and physical properties of the soil, enriches it with nitrogen and creates favorable conditions for the cultivation of winter crops. Even without proper fertilization of the field, it can provide grain yield of winter wheat at a level of 30-40 c / ha. During the two-year vegetation, the cranberry leaves leave behind 137-208 kg / ha of nitrogen, 48-74 phosphorus, 73 - 109 calcium and 400-450 kg / ha of humus. The cultivation of this culture on the slopes protects soil from erosion. The use of nitrogen from the air and the ability to reduce the dose of mineral fertilizers can solve environmental problems. The clover effectively improves the structure of the soil, loosens, facilitates it, increases air and moisture content. The phyto-sanitary qualities clearly expressed in the clover. It heals the soil, reduces the infestation of the next crop in the crop rotation. This  in turn  leads to a decrease in plant diseases, increased fertility of the soil and productivity of crop rotation.

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Посилання


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