Features of photosynthetic activity of potato plants in the conditions of the Right-bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine

R. O. MYALKOVSKY

Анотація


The influence of modern different on the ripeness varieties of potato plants, the terms of planting and the depth of tubers wrapping on the intensity of photosynthesis of potato plants in separate phases of development in the conditions of the Right Bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine have been studied. Experimental studies have found that the intensity of photosynthesis in the phases of development of plants in medium-early varieties of potatoes was the highest in the years of research during the budding period. Terms of planting and depth of wrapping did not particularly affect this indicator. Among the periods of planting with high intensity of plants, I (23-25.04) stands out with a depth of tubers wrapping 6 to 8 cm and made up: the variety Dyvo - 19.5, the Legenda - 19.1 and Malynsky white - 19.8 mg of CO2 per 1 hour per 1 dm2 of leaf surface, respectively. The lowest this index was noted in the phase of the beginning of the tops fading in the variety Dyvo, it was at different depths of wrapping (2-3, 6-8 and 10-12 cm) - 9.1, 12.3 and 9.0 mg CO2 per 1 year on 1 dm2 of leaf surface. Similar indicators of the Legenda variety - 9.3, 11.6, 10.8 and Malynska white - 8.9, 10.9, 11.4 mg of СО2 for 1 year on 1 dm2 of leaf surface. A noticeable decrease in the intensity of photosynthesis in the phase of the beginning of the tops fading can be explained by the fact of the aging of plants, the yellowing and dying of the lower leaves. The same pattern is observed in the second (03-05.05) and III (13-15.05) periods of planting.  Studies have shown that the intensity of photosynthesis of potato varieties of different ripeness groups , for less developed plants, is characterized by a decrease in it when in the well-developed, especially in the budding phase, the intensity of photosynthesis is more stable.
According to the results of studies, the most intense photosynthesis intensity in potato plants of medium-ripe varieties was in the phases of budding - flowering, regardless of the depth of tubers wrapping. With the highest indicators, the second (03-05.05)term of planting is allocated Malynska white with a depth of tubers wrapping 2-3 cm - 22.3; 6-8 cm - 22,2 and 10-12 cm - 22,6 mg of СО2 for 1 hour on 1 dm2 of the leaf surface. In the phase of the beginning of the tops fading, there was a noticeable decrease in this index.  Similar indexes of photosynthesis intensity of potato plants are in medium-late varieties. We have noted that the intensity of photosynthesis in the phases of development was the most intense in all years of research during the budding period. The highest rates from the first planting term (23-25.04) were noted in the Dar variety in the phase of budding; they were at the depth of tubers wrapping 2-3 cm - 22.3 mg CO2 per 1 hour on 1 dm2 of the leaf surface, the depth of tubers wrapping 6-8 cm - 22.7 and 10-12 cm - 23.4 mg CO2 per 1 hour on 1 dm2 of leaf surface. And in the phase of plants development, the beginning of the tops fading, these indicators have decreased almost twice. Similar indicators are in other varieties. This decrease in the intensity of photosynthesis is due to the fact that because of the large vegetative weight and the beginning of plant wilting, much energy is spent on increasing the intensity of respiration, in addition, in some plants, the leaves are saturated with products of assimilation, which are used by the plant is much worse than synthesized, which worsens the intensity of photosynthesis. Thus, we can conclude that the intensity of photosynthesis of potatoes depends on many factors, primarily on the phase of ontogenesis, humidity and changes in ambient temperature. Among the varieties of different ripeness groups, the highest rates were obtained from the first term of planting (23-25.04) in the Dar variety from the budding stage at the depth of tubers wrapping 2-3 ml - 22.3 mg of CO2 per 1 hour on 1 dm2 of leaf surface, at the depth of tubers wrapping 6-8 cm - 22.7 and depth 1012 cm - 23.4 mg CO2 per 1 hour on 1 dm2 of leaf surface, that is, plants show basically medium and sufficient ability to assimilate CO2. The dynamics of the intensity of photosynthesis during ontogenesis showed its growth up to the phase of
budding-flowering with the subsequent decrease in the phase of the beginning of the tops fading, which is due to the aging of plants, the yellowing and dying of the lower leaves. Thus, further study and improvement should focus on in-depth study of the physiology and photosynthetic activity of potato plants of new varieties adapted to certain soil-climatic conditions.

Ключові слова


potatoes, varieties, terms of planting, depth of tubers wrapping, intensity of photosynthesis

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