Results of the breeding work with winter rye to the Nosivkabreeding research station

N. V. Symonenko, V. V. Skoryk, V. L. Zhemoyda

Анотація


An analysis of the state breeding work with winter rye and the demand of the population for the grain of this culture in Ukraine are showed in the article. The crop areas have decreased in recent years are marked. The expansion of the seed market of Ukraine is taking place by foreign varieties. It leads to a decline in the breeding and seeding of this cereal. The achievements of domestic breeding, in particular, breeders of Nosivka breeding research station are showing that the level of these researches were and are quite high at the same time. This is especially concern for creating short-stemmed forms. Long-term work (more than 40 years) prof. V.V. Skorik and his pupils made it possible by direct genetically short-stemmed selection material in particular (donors  Gnom 1, Gnom 2, Gnom3). This material used in subsequent crossing and created new modern synthetic varieties with high economic valuable signs.  The donors susceptibility to were created (Immuner 76, Immuner 76/1, Immuner 76/92, Immuner 76/13). The donor of group resistance to fuzariozes, powdery mildew and rush funquses Cobra was created as result of direct selection and crossing wild primitive species of winter rye Secale iranicum Kobyl., Secale montanum Guss. S. P., Derzhavinskaya 29 + 2.
The commercial varieties of synthetics Borotba (9.9 t / ha), Struna (11.8 t / ha), Boguslavka (9.18 t / ha), Corona (8.6 t / ha), Dozor (8.1 t / ha) with high resistance to fungal diseases were created by stepped and back crossings. The problem of frost resistance of modern varieties was decide  by including to hybrid combinations one of the parent components of this characteristic was the varieties Vyatka, Vyatka 2. The survival of new varieties of V. Skoryk's breeding on their basis after winter was more than 98% (even with a decrease in temperature to - 26◦С without snow cover). The rye with a dominant short-stem forms leaf vehicle, which during the period of pouring the grain keeps a large area of the green surface, which contributes to the prolongation of photosynthetic activity, was established. New varieties with an intermediate type of placement of leaf blade and long ear Sirius, Zhatva, Kobza, Zabava have increased photosynthetic capacity and high yield. The components of yields are analysing and the data of creating grain size donors, the weight of 1000 grains, and factors influencing the formation of the productivity, in particular the number of embryonic roots, are more numerous in shortstem forms (up to 7.3 versus 4.2) are leading. The high feed value of the grain and the green mass of varieties was established due to the significant genetic bonds formed as a result of directed selections on quantitative characteristics during many generations. The content of non-starch polysaccharides - pentosans are important for evaluating the suitability of rye grain for feed or bakery purposes. The varieties of rye bakery because of the high content of pentosans. The feed rye should have a low number of pentosans.  The news varieties: Amey (9,98 t / ha) and Versha (9,34 t / ha) with low content of pentosans (WAX– 1,15-1,20%) and high protein content (11,7-11, 8%) can be using as fodder;  Kobza and Zabava varieties with the average content of pentosans (WAX - 1,33-1,57%) and high protein content (11,8-11,9%) and starch (63-64%) can satisfy the needs of both the forage and bakery; varieties with high content of non-starch polysaccharides (WAX - 1,89-2,03%) in protein content (10,7-11,5%) are recommended for the baking industry (Sirius, Zhatva, Hlibne, Syntetic 38, Dozor).

Ключові слова


winter rye, breeding, dwarfs of short stalk, frost resistance, fungal diseases, varieties of synthetics, wild species

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