Formation of photosynthetic potential of the winter rape in dependence on the conditions of growth on Right bank Forest- steppe of Ukraine

Y. Savchuk, O. Antonenko

Анотація


The leading role in ensuring the productivity of crops is photosynthesis, which takes place in the leaves of plants and is an extremely important phenomenon. The goal was to determine the photosynthetic activity of winter rape plants. The following tasks were set: to determine the area of the sheet assimilation surface, the net productivity of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic potential of winter crop sowing, depending on the dates of sowing and micronutrient fertilization. The research was conducted on the experimental field of the NULES of Ukraine "Agronomic Research Station", located in the Pshenichne village, Vasylkivsky district, Kyiv region. The relief of the plots is flat, the ground is typical of black currant. For the determination of experimental research, commonly used methods were used Moiseychenko V., 1996 and Gritsaenko Z., 2003. Experiment three factor: A factor - used varieties of winter rape Snihova Koroleva, Andromeda, Vesuviy; Factor B - Chelating microfertilizers Wuxal Microplant, Therios and Ascofol; Factor C - sowing dates August 11, August 21; August 31. It is known that the photosynthetic surface of crops depends on the efficiency of their work, which in turn affects the formation of the productivity of oilseeds and is determined by indicators such as the net productivity of photosynthesis. The net productivity of photosynthesis shows the amount of dry matter in grams that is formed per day and to a large extent depends on the formed leaf surface. The fact that the decrease in the net productivity of photosynthesis with an increase in the optical density of crops is the main reason for the decrease in the productivity of a unit of the leaf
surface with the net cleanliness of photosynthesis is the same for all cultures, about the rather close relationship of productivity with the intensity of the unit of area of the leaf surface. According to the results obtained at the sowing on August 11, the largest area of the leaf area of winter crop sowing was noted in the variety of Snihova Koroleva in the application of microfertilizers Wuxal Microplant - 84.3 thousand m2 / ha, as well as Vesuviy in the version of the Wuxal Terios - 84.2 thousand m2 /ha. The net productivity of photosynthesis was determined during the interphase period of budding - blooming, it corresponded to the same variants. In the Snihova Koroleva variety - 7.62 g / m2, and 7.74 g / m2 per day, in the winter rape of Vesuviy. Photosynthetic activity with the optimal seeding date on August, 21 was better in the winter rape of Vesuviy for the use of 3 microfertilizers of Wuxal Microplant, Ascofol and Therios, which respectively amounted to 85.5, 84.7 and 84.1 thousand m2 / ha. Negative indicators were also obtained when using the Wuxal Microplant in the variety of the Snihova Koroleva- 84.2 thousand m2 / ha. The net productivity of photosynthesis was better in the Vesuviy variety when used with Wuxal Therios - 8.60 g / m2 and in the Snihova Koroleva variety when using Wuxal Microplant 8.4 g / m2 per day. At the later stage, the best options were to plant Vesuviy, Wuxal, Therios and Ascofol, respectively 78.7 and 78.4 thousand m2 / ha, as well as Wuxal Terios Andromeda variety - 76.6 thousand m2 / ha. The net productivity of photosynthesis was higher in the variety of the Snihova Koroleva in the treatment of Wuxal Microplant 7.54 g / m2, which surpassed control of 1.3 g / m2 per day. So it should be noted that the best options at the earliest date of sowing were varieties of the Snihova Koroleva - Wuxal Microplant, which exceeded the control of 15.1 thousand m2 / ha, and Vesuviy in the processing of microfertilizers Wuxal Microplant, Ascopol and Therios in terms of control exceeded by 15. 0, 14.2 and 14.8 thousand m2 / ha.
At optimal seeding time, Wuxal Microplant, Therios in the winter variety Vesuviy variety was the best variant, their value in relation to control exceeded by 5.7 and 4.9 thousand m2 / ha. In addition, the largest difference between variants within a single variety was noted in the variety of Snihova Koroleva in the application of Wuxal Microplant - by 14.0 thousand m2 / ha compared to control. At the later date, the best options were Wuksal, Therios and Askofol varieties Vesuviy, which in terms of control exceeded 2.7 and 2.4 thousand m2 / ha, and Andromeda - Wuxal Therios 2.9 thousand m2 / ha. The highest degree of pure productivity of photosynthesis was noted at the optimal time of sowing in the varieties of winter rape Vesuvius - Wuxal Terios and the Snihova Koroleva - Wuxal Microplant 8.6 and 8.4 g / m2 per day. Photosynthetic potential was determined during the interphase period budding - flowering. With regard to the photosynthetic potential, the best options were: at the earliest time, sowing the Snihova Koroleva and Vesuviyi for the treatment of Wuxal Microplant and Therios, and over control 0.5 mln m2 - days / ha. At the optimal time of sowing Vesuviyi and the Snihova Koroleva - Wuxal Microplant is 0.8 - 0.7 mln m2 – days / ha relative to the control. And at the late harvest, the Vesuvius - Wuxal Microplant and Therios, which exceeded the control by 0.5 and 0. mln m2 - days /ha., respectively. However, the formation of photosynthetic potential to a large extent depends on the conditions for growing winter rape varieties. At an early stage of sowing, the best of themselves showed the varieties of the Snihova Koroleva in the application of Wuxal, Microplant and Vesuviy for the processing of Wuxal Microplant and Therios. At optimum seedlings in the Vesuviy variety, all microfertilizers of Wuxal Microplant, Ascofol and Terios were well shown. In the style of the Snihova Koroleva better than other results were for processing Wuxal Microplant. In the short term, sow the best Vesuviy – Wuxal, Therios and Ascofol, as well as Andromeda in the application of Wuxal, Therios. The best net efficacy of photosynthesis was noted at the optimal time of sowing in the varieties of winter rape Vesuviy – Wuxal, Therios and the Snihova
Koroleva - Wuxal Microplant. The photosynthetic potential of the winter rape corresponded to the varieties that were given above.

Ключові слова


winter rapeseed, sowing time, microfertilizer, photosynthesis, leaf surface area, net productivity of photosynthesis

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