Content of humus and labeled organic substances in different use of chernozem typical

A. Balaev, O. Pikovska, O. L. Tonkha

Анотація


Integral indicator of potential fertility of chernozem soil, which is one of the wealth of Ukraine considered organic matter in the soil.  Increased intensity of use of chernozem soils and violation of the principles of rational use of
them leads to loss of humus and changes in its qualitative composition. Scientists have established that the plowing of virgin lands affects the ratio of mineralization and humification processes of organic matter to the soil [ 1, 2, 3 ] . Label organic matter and humus play an important role in the fertility of the soil and increase crop yields. That is why study their content and quality are important in the study of the effectiveness of tillage and fertilization.  Analysis of recent research and publications. The main causes of humus losses during soil development are the decrease in the number of plant residues and labile humus substances, an increase in nutrient content compared to natural cenosis , which in the future leads to a violation of the structure of the surface layer, changes in the water regime and increased mineralization of humus through the impact of intensive soil cultivation and aeration. The development of organic matter is enhanced by the action of physiologically acidic fertilizers and the removal of basic nutrients with crop yields [ 4 ]. Agricultural use of chernozems at a low level of agrotechnics leads to a decrease in the content and stocks of organic matter in the soil [ 5, 6, 7 ]. However, it has been established that the application of the organomineral fertilizer system in conjunction with the minimization of soil ctillage contributes to the balance of mineralization and humification processes and the restoration of fertility of chernozems [ 8, 9].  The purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to study the content of total carbon, humus and labile organic substances (LOR) for different systems of tillage and fertilization of chernozem typical.  Materials and methods of research. The research was conducted on chernozem typical in the experimental field of the Cherkasy DS NSC "Institute of Agriculture of the NAAN" with a 40-year-old use of technologies in the Drabiv experimental field. Systems of tillage are presented five variants, from which we studied plowing on the depth 22-27 cm and non-plow tillage on 22-27 cm .  The humus content of the soil was determined by method Tyurin in modification B.   M.   Simakova (DSTU 4289: 2004); labile organic matter according to DSTU 4732: 2007. 
Results of the research and their discussion . Results of determining the content of humus in chernozem are given in Table 1.
 
1. The content of humus of chernozem typical Drabiv research field  The variant of tillage Fertilizer option  Depth, cm  C, %  Humus, % 
Plowing  No fertilizer 
0-10  1.83  3.15  10-20  1.78  3.06  20-30  1.68  2.89  Average 0-30  1.72  3,03 
Plowing  N60P40R60 
0-10  2.04  3.51  10-20  2.05  3.53  20-30  2.06  3.56  Average 0-30  2.05  3.53 
Non-plow tillage 
No fertilizer 
0-10  2,18  3.75  10-20  2.03  3.49  20-30  1.96  3.37  Average 0-30  2.06  3.54 
Non-plow tillage
N60P40R60 
0-10  2.40  4.13  10-20  2.02  3.49  20-30  1.96  3.38  Average 0-30  2.13  3.67 
Virgin
0-10  3.3  5.68  10-20  2.49  4.29  20-30  2.07  3 , 56  Average 0-30  2.62  3.67  NIR 05  0.12 
  The content of humus was naturally the highest in the virgin - 3, 56 - 5.68 % in the 0-30 cm layer, the lowest - on the plow control 2.89-3.15%. In general, the application of fertilizers for barley grew more influenced by the indexes of carbon content and humus compared with the systems of soil cultivation . It should be noted that as unpleasant the option, and for the introduction of fertilizers under barley, the higher values were noted for fieldless cultivation and accounted for respectively 3.54 and 3.67%, whereas for plowing the content was at the level of 3,03 and 3,53% on average in the 0- 30 cm layer.   Non-plow tillage led to the differentiation of 0-30 cm layer of humus content. Thus, in a 0-10 cm layer, the humus content on the varant without fertilizer was
higher by 8 relative percent against the 10-20 cm layer and 12% compared with the 20-30 cm layer; on the fertilized version, the excess was 19 and 23%. At the turn of the profile redistribution in the 0-30 cm layer was 33 and 60%. In the variant of plowing humus content is evenly distributed in 0-30 cm layer of soil. Thus, the use of non-plow tillage brings about a profile redistribution of organic matter in the top layer. black earth typical of perehloga .  Table 2 presents the results of the determination of labile organic matter in the experiment of the Drabiv experimental field.    2. Labile Organic Substance (CLoR) of chernozem typical of Drabiv experimental field  The variant of cultivation  Fertilizer option  Depth, cm Clor,% 
Plowing  No fertilizer 
0-10  0.030  10-20  0.027  20-30  0.022  Average 0-30  0,026 
Plowing  N60P40R60 
0-10  0,096  10-20  0.086  20-30  0.075  Average 0-30  0.086 
Non-plow tillage  No fertilizer 
0-10  0.169  10-20  0.068  20-30  0.042  Average 0-30  0,093 
Non-plow tillage N60P40R60 
0-10  0.179  10-20  0,106  20-30  0.063  Average 0-30  0,116 
Fallow 
0-10  0.156  10-20  0.0 8 9  20-30  0.064  Average 0-30  0,103  NIR 05  0.04 
  The least labile organic compounds, as well as humus, are marked on the variant without fertilizers for plowing - 0.022-0.030% . In the fertilized version, the contents of the LOR consisted of plowing 0,075-0,096, and for non-plow tillage -
0,063-0,179. Organic organic matter is the closest reserve of nutrients that a plant can use for its growth and development. Our research has established the positive influence of fertilization and non-plow tillage on their number in typical chernozem. On average, in the 0-30 cm layer, the content of LOR for plowing without fertilization amounted to 0,026%, in the variant N60P40K60 - 0,086%; for non-plow tillage without fertilizers - 0,093, and in the fertilized variant - 0,116%, while in the virgin - 0,103%.  Conclusions and perspectives . It is determined in the plowing of plowing and non-plow tillage with or without mineral fertilizer on the content of humus and labile organic substances in chernozem typical. It is established that non-plow tillage causes differentiation 0-30 cm layer on the content of humus. The introduction of fertilizers and the non-plow tillage increased the content of humus chernozem typical. In the variant of non-plow tillage it was 3.54% for control and 3.67% for N60P40K60 comparing the plowing with content 3.03 and 3.53%  in  0-30 cm. The positive influence of fertilization and non-plow tillage on the number of labile organic substances in typical chernozem has been established.  Prospective are further studies on the role of labile organic substances in the fertility of chernozems and productivity of crops.

Ключові слова


humus, labile organic matter, typical black soil, tillage, fertilizers

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Посилання


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