Comparative evaluation of different nitrogen derivatives for early spring influence on rich-black sea soil

O. M. Henhalo, N. O. Henhalo, Eu. V. Sheina

Анотація


Winter wheat yield and grain quality largely depend on providing plants with mineral nutrients throughout the growing season. Intensive varieties are characterized by high requirements to the feeding conditions and only in terms of the full and balanced supply of nutrients they can be formed high yields. The sufficient amount of nutrients in readily available form in the soil almost never happens, therefore, to obtain higher yields of winter wheat it is necessary to apply organic and mineral fertilizers at the appropriate time. In this regard we have conducted the studies on the effect of different types of nitrogen fertilizers, in terms of their introduction in the phase of spring tillering (GS 25-29), on the formation of productivity of winter wheat when grown in the Right Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. The purpose of the research is to study the effect of early-spring feeding of winter wheat, on the background of basic fertilizing, with different types of nitrogen fertilizers on the formation of productivity, yield and quality of the obtained grain. In the experiment it was studied the effectiveness of early-spring feeding of
winter wheat on the background of the main fertilizer with various types of nitrogen fertilizers introduced in the spring phase of tillering (GS 25-29). The study of efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer was carried out during 20162017 according to the scheme: 1. Without fertilizers (control); 2. N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium nitrate); 3. N30Р80К80 + N30 (КАС-32); 4. N30Р80К80 + N30 (КАС+S)*; 5. N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium sulphate); 6. N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium sulphate with humates)**. * КАС+S – the mixture КАС-32 with an aqueous solution (NH4)2SO4, which contains 23% N and 3% S (7% SO4). ** ammonium sulphate with humates (21% N and 24% S and about 1% of humic substances) was developed by the National technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” (TS U 00203826.007-94). The soil of the experimental plot is meadow-humus carbonate lumpypowder-like  light loamy on forest loam, which was characterized by high contents of CaCO3, humus content in the arable layer was 3.8%, the reaction of the soil solution was weakly alkaline (pH – 7.6), the absorption capacity of 32.5 mEq/100g of soil. This soil was characterized by medium provision with weakly-hydrolysed compounds of nitrogen and mobile phosphorus, and low provision with exchange potassium. The analysis of yield structure elements showed that in all research variants of they developed favorable conditions for obtaining high yields of winter wheat with high grain quality. However, the formation of the best structural parameters of the winter wheat crop was in terms of early spring feeding with fertilizers KAC with sulfur (N30 (КАС+S) on the background of basic fertilizer (N30Р80К80) and ammonium sulphate with humates, herewith a significant difference between these variants was not observed. The lowest winter wheat yield was in the control without fertilizing and was, in average during the research years, 4.36 t/ha. In terms of early spring fertilizing with ammonium nitrate on the background of basic fertilizer (N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium nitrate)), the yield increased when compared to control by 2.02 t/ha (46.2 %). The highest yield of 6.17 t/ha (a buildup of control of 2.80 t/ha or 64.2%)
were observed when applying on the background of basic fertilizer KAC with sulfur (N30Р80К80 + N30 (КАС+S)), whereas in terms of the use of ammonium sulfate with humates (N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium sulphate with humates)), the yield was slightly lower and was equal to 6.48 t/ha (a buildup of control of 2.12 t/ha or 48.5%). In terms of early spring fertilizing with ammonium nitrate on the background of basic fertilizer (N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium nitrate)), the yield increased when compared to control by 2.02 t/ha (46.2 %). The highest yield of 6.17 t/ha (a buildup of control of 2.80 t/ha or 64.2%) were observed when applying on the background of basic fertilizer KAC with sulfur (N30Р80К80 + N30 (КАС+S)), whereas in terms of the use of ammonium sulfate with humates (N30Р80К80 + N30 (ammonium sulphate with humates)), the yield was slightly lower and was equal to 6.48 t/ha (a buildup of control of 2.12 t/ha or 48.5%). In our studies the early-spring feeding with fertilizer KAC+S on the background of the main fertilizer provided the grain of the 1st quality rank. In the options with early spring feeding with KAC-32, ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate with humates, the grain corresponded to the 2nd quality rank, whereas in terms of the use of ammonium nitrate – to the 3rd quality rank. Conclusions. 1. The maximum yield of winter wheat in terms of growth in meadow-humus calcareous soil is achieved by early spring feeding in the frozenthawed soil with fertilizer KAC+S with a dose of N30on the background of basic fertilizer (N30P80K80) and is of 7.16 t/ha. 2. According to National State Standard 3768:2010 obtaining the the grain of the 1st quality rank is possible in terms of early spring feeding in the frozen-thawed soil with the fertilizer KAC+S with a dose of N30 on the background of basic fertilizer (N30P80K80) . In terms of the use of KAC-32 and sulfur-containing fertilizers ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate with humates on the background of basic fertilizer the grain corresponds to the 2nd quality rank.

Ключові слова


nitrogen fertilizers, early spring fertilizer, wheat yield, harvest structure, grain quality

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Посилання


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