Особливості розповсюдження пилку амброзії полинолистої (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.)

В. М. Івченко

Анотація


FEATURES POLLEN DISTRIBUTION OF RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA L.)

V. Ivchenko

 

In recent years Ukraine has seen a proliferation problem of quarantine species – ragweed (Аmbrosia artemisiifolia L.), the cause of which is the decline of agriculture, the reduction of cultivated land, which are hotbeds for the propagation and spread of weed seeds, and biological peculiarities of ragweed, allowing it to adapt to the environment.

For research use gravimetric air sampling method is used to determine the pollen particles that are in it, and based on the fact that in the air dense particles settle by gravity. For sampling a gravimetric method was used dust trap Durram.

Intensive flowering period of ragweed in the Eastern regions of Ukraine is in August–September. According to studies, the main peak of the flowering – the end of August – beginning of September. During this period, the concentration of pollen of weed in the air exceeds 400–450 grains/m3 of air. High enough she stayed, and in the second decade of September (more than 300 grains/m3 of air) until the first decade of October (100 grains/m3 of air).

The main peak of the distribution of pollen at the site, which is ragweed growing was observed from 8.00 to 14.00 hours. This trend is quite natural and consistent with an active increase in daily air temperatures.

At the same time, in conditions of the village main peak of the distribution of pollen occurs at least two hours after the maximum in areas actively inhabited by ambrosia. This suggests that the pollen was in town with the air masses that move from a remote site. The second peak of increased concentration of pollen in the air accounts for 21.00 hours and suggests that pollen from plants of ragweed with the air masses came to the intake from distant areas.

The study of the daily rhythm of spreading pollen is a valuable tool for estimating the distances to sources of pollen. Knowing the direction and speed of wind becomes possible to timely and accurate determination of the source of the pollen.

Thus, the gravimetric method is effective to detect the concentration of ragweed pollen within settlements.

The study of the amount of pollen in the air can be used by quarantine services to survey the area for the presence of ambrosia. This reduces the number of employees necessary for the conduct of the quarantine research and identify allergens. One worker using the instrument can collect samples from a large number of regions in the period of the maximum allocation of pollen in the air – that is, from 8.00 to 17.00, and identification of the obtained material can be carried out centrally in the laboratory.


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