Вплив способів сівби на продуктивність бобово-злакових агрофітоценозів

І. І. Сеник

Анотація


INFLUENCE OF SEEDING METHODS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF LEGUME-GRASS AGROPHYTOCENOSIS

І. І. Senyk

 

Urgency of the research. Sustainable development of the country's agriculture is impossible without the revival of efficient farm animal production, as one of the components of food security of the state. The leading place in the revival of farm animal production will belong to the branch of forage production in general, and meadow production, in particular. Among the measures that increase the forage productivity of sown meadow agrophytocenosis, optimization of the methods of their sowing and spatial placement of plants per unit of area is important.

Analysis of recent research and publications. Grassland scientists have been done a lot of research on this problem, but there is still no consensus on the optimal method of sowing medow grasses.

Therefore, the absence of one opinion regarding the optimal method of sowing perennial legume-grass agrophytocenosis, has led to the choice of research topic.

The goal of research is to determine the optimal methods of sowing of perennial alfalfa-grass and clover-grass agrophytocoenosis under the conditions of Western forest steppe.

Methods. The research has been done for 2015-2016 by the Ternopil Research Station of the Veterinary Medicine Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the collection research field of the NULES of Ukraine “Zalishchyky Agricultural College named after Ye. Khraplyvy”.

The scheme of the experiment included two factors: factor A - agrophytocenosis, factor B - way of sowing.

Results. Due to the difficult weather conditions during the growing season of perennial grasses in 2015 and late sowing because of this, the dry matter yield in the first year of life was low and was 2.01-2.71 t / ha depending on the method of sowing and the component composition of grass mixtures.

Among the studied agrophytocenosis, the clover-grasses provided a dry matter yield of 2.19-2.71 t / ha, while the alfalfa-grasses were 2.01-2.46 t / ha.

Grass mixtures based on the variety of the Pavlyna medow clover and the variety of the Syniukha creeping alfalfa were more productive than phytocenosis based on the varieties of Sparta and Serafima varieties.

The yield of dry matter of clover-grass agrophytocenosis by the ordinary sowing in drills was 2,19-2,29 t / ha, by cross sowing - 2,50-2,58 t / ha, and in case of separate cross sowing - 2,57-2,71 T / ha depending on their variety assortment. A similar situation was observed for alfalfa-grass agrophytocenosis, for which the yield of dry matter was 2.01-2.09 t / ha by the ordinary sowing in drills, by cross sowing - 2.25-2.35 t / ha and 2.38-2.46 t / ha.

In the second year of life the grass mixture with the Pavlyna clover variety had the yield of dry matter in a separate cross sowing - 12,84 t / ha, and with Sparta variety -12,09 t / ha,  alfalfa-grass agrophytocenosis - 10,45 t / ha with the Serafima variety and 11,39 t / ha with the Syniukha variety.

On average, for two years of research, the productivity of clover-grasses was 6.39-7.71 t / ha, and alfalfa-grasses - 5.51-6.93 t / ha depending on the varietal characteristics of the bean component and the method of sowing.

The Sparta medow clover variety sown in mixtures with timothy grass and multiflourus fenugreek trigonella ensured the dry matter yield of 6.92-7.71 t / ha, and Pavlyna variety in similar experimental variants - 6,39-7,40 t / ha. The productivity of the alfalfa-grass agrophytocenosis with the Serafyma variety was 5.51-6.42 t / ha, and with Syniukha - 6.04-6.93 t / ha.

Among the studied methods of sowing, the most optimal was the separate cross sowing, in variants of which the yield of dry matter was 7.40-7.71 t / ha for clover-grasses and 6.42-6.93 t / ha for alfalfa-grasses.

Similar variants of the usual string and cross-fertilization method ensured the productivity at the level of 6,92-6,39 and 6,99-7,71 t / ha for grass mixtures based on medow clover and 5,51-6,04 and 5,90 -6.54 t / ha for alfalfa-grass agrophytocenosis.

Conclusions and perspectives. Under the conditions of the Western forest steppe, according to the results of two-year studies, the best way to sow legume-grass mixtures is separate cross sowing, which provides the productivity of the dry matter of the clover-grass agrophytocenosis at the level of 7.40-7.71 t / ha, and alfalfa-grasses - 6, 42-6.93 t / ha. Development of new varieties of perennial grasses and agricultural machinery cause the development of innovative technological techniques of varietal agrotechnics for the cultivation of perennial grasses.


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Посилання


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