Віталітетна структура та онтогенетичні індекси ценопопуляцій Allium Ursinum L. (Alliceae) у лісових фітоценозах на Прикарпатті

Л. Д. Петруняк



L. D. Petruniak


In recent years, the influence of human activities threatens many plants reduction in their populations. In this situation are coenopopulations of Allium ursinum L. The ramsons as characterized by significant food and medicinal properties, its population rapidly declining due to anthropogenic factors such as trampling, tearing leaves, etc. Therefore, the aim of the study was to clarify the vitality structure of A. ursinum at different levels of anthropogenic pressure on them. The study was conducted during 2014 - 2016 years in the Ivano-Frankivsk region. The object of the study was 11 natural coenopopulations of A. ursinum in different growth conditions.

Analysis of vitality structure was carried out by the method of Yu. Zlobin. To do this, each coenopopulations were selected by 30 generative individuals. Vitality status of individuals was determined by morphometric parameters such as the length of the stems. The measurements were made in the field without damaging species as A. ursinum included in the Red Book of Ukraine. Vitality ranges of coenopopulations built based on the separation of the investigated species into three classes: high (a), intermediate (b) and low (c). The population is considered to be prosperous at Q> c, the equilibrium at Q ≈ c and depressed when Q <c.

For characteristics the dynamics of populations calculated such indexes as inderecovery, aging, replacement and index general age of population for I. M. Kovalenko.

The largest quantity of investigated coenopopulations for vitality structure belonging to prosperous type. The highest quality index (Q) had coenopopulations I and II, are characterized by high densities. Depressed are coenopopulations III, IX and X; which is dominated by the processes of human impacts, including: grass grazing cattle, trampling, digging. The coenopopulation III is characterized by the lowest index Q and in accordance with the lowest density. The coenopopulations V and XI, that are situated in the territory of conservation, are also depressed. This effect has specificity phytocoenotic environment (a significant number of Aegopodium podagraria).

In the studied coenopopulations recovery processes prevail over the aging process. Watching for the dynamics (2014 – 2016 yy.) the recovery process, then the coenopopulations I, II, IV, V – it is increasing (positive), and for other coenopopulations is downward. Index total age of population is less than unity; and informs that investigated coenopopulations are young. Index of substitution varies within 0.074 - 0.394. The smallest, inducator detected in mountain coenopopulations IV and V.

Thus, the vitality structure A. ursinum is stable, the coenopopulations are young and belong to a prosperous type of vitality. Significant negative influence on the life potential of the studied species is anthropogenic factor and phytocoenotic environment. Where there was a significant cattle grazing, trampling, there coenopopulations are depressed.

Keywords: Allium ursinum L., coenopopulation, vitality structure, index quality, ontogenetic indexes, anthropogenic pressure


Повний текст:




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