Санітарно-гігієнічні умови утримання птиці за органічного вирощування як чинник продуктивності

М. Д. Кучерук, Д. А. Засєкін, Р. О. Димко, О. А. Щербина

Анотація


SANITARY AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS FOR GOOD PRODUCTIVITY OF ORGANIC POULTRY

M. D. Kucheruk, D. A. Zasekin, R. O. Dymko, O. A. Shcherbyna

 

People are becoming more and more concerned about the source of their food. They’re asking themselves where did it come from? How was it raised? And most importantly, how was it fed?

There are strict guidelines for organic feeds, including organic chicken feed. It must contain grains grown organically. This means with no pesticides, or chemicals of any kind. These grains cannot be grown from genetically modified seeds or contaminated by them. Non-organic, micro-ingredients like vitamins, minerals, salt, and the amino acid methionine are allowed to be in organic chicken feed. There can be no drugs, antibiotics, or hormones in it as the protein sources have to be organic.

Most farm supply stores offer a choice between organic chicken feed and conventional chicken feed. As with all other organic products, the cost will be higher. We each have to weigh the choices and make the decision that best suits our ideals and situations.

Those who wish to sell their products to be used as organic ingredients or organic feed by others, must be certified certifying agent. To sell organic eggs or poultry meat, birds must be fed and managed organically from the second day after hatching. All agricultural components of the feed ration, including kelp and carriers in feed supplements, must be 100% organic. All poultry must have access to the outdoors.

Organic poultry producers must establish preventative livestock health management practices. Medical treatment cannot be withheld from sick animals or flocks to maintain the birds' organic status. The use of growth hormones, antibiotics, genetic engineering, and animal cloning is prohibited, as is the feeding of slaughter byproducts. All organic poultry production and processing operations, including slaughter plants and egg handling facilities, must be certified agencies. Detailed records of all feeds, medications, and transactions must be maintained. Organic integrity must be protected by preventing organic birds and poultry products from coming in contact with prohibited substances or being commingled with non-organic products.

Organic Production – it is a production system that is managed respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity." This means that, in order to be certified for organic production of livestock or poultry, producers must use cultural, biological, and/or mechanical practices and employ ecological principles, such as natural resource conservation and recycling of resources.

  • Feed used for organic poultry production must not contain:
  • Animal drugs, including hormones, to promote growth;
  • Feed supplements or additives in amounts above those needed for adequate nutrition and health maintenance;
  • Plastic feed pellets;
  • Urea or manure;
  • Mammalian or poultry slaughter byproducts fed to mammals or poultry;
  • Feed, additives, or supplements in violation of the Food and Drug Administration; or
  • Feed or forage to which any antibiotic, including ionophores, has been added.

Organic poultry producers must establish and maintain year-round living conditions which accommodate the health and natural behavior of the birds, including:

Year-round access for all birds to the outdoors, shade, shelter, exercise areas, fresh air, clean water for drinking, and direct sunlight, suitable to the species, its stage of life, the climate, and the environment;

Appropriate clean, dry bedding (which must be organic if roughages are used for bedding); and Shelter designed to allow for:

natural maintenance, comfort behaviors, and opportunity to exercise;

temperature levels, ventilation, and air circulation suitable to the species; and

reduction of potential for livestock injury.

Yards, feeding pads, feedlots and laneways used for organic poultry must be well-drained, kept in good condition (including frequent removal of wastes), and managed to prevent runoff of wastes and contaminated waters to adjoining or nearby surface water and across property boundaries.

Organic poultry producers may provide temporary confinement or shelter because of:

  • Inclement weather
  • The animal's stage of life
  • Conditions under which the health, safety, or well being of the birds could be jeopardized
  • Risks to soil or water quality
  • Performance of preventative health care procedures or treatment of illness or injury
  • Sorting or shipping animals
  • Breeding
  • Presentation at fairs or events

If it is determined that temporaryh confinement of birds is needed to protect the health, safety, or welfare of organic flocks, then producers and certifiers may work together to determine an appropriate method and duration of confinement of organic poultry flocks without a loss of organic certification. The method of temporary confinement to be used must be approved by the certifying agent and should provide the necessary protection to the birds while meeting the remaining requirements of the NOP Final Rule. Continuous total confinement of any animal indoors is prohibited, according to the organic standards.

All organic producers must take steps to prevent the contamination of water and minimize soil erosion. Organic poultry producers must make sure that their birds do not cause erosion or contaminate water resources. Organic poultry operations must manage manure so that it does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, heavy metals, or pathogenic organisms, and that it optimizes the recycling of nutrients.

Organic poultry producers must not use lumber treated with arsenate or other prohibited materials in contact with soil or birds for new installations or replacementj purposes. The prohibition applies to lumber used in direct contact with organic poultry, and does not apply to lumber used for fence posts or building materials as long as the birds are isolated from the lumber by use of electric fences, netting or other methods approved by the certification agent. If treated lumber was present prior to application for certification, it may remain, but no new installations are allowed where the birdsj are able to consume forage immediately around the posts, or rub up against the wood in structures such as pens, runs or buildings. Rot-resistant, untreated woods such as cedar, white oak, or black locust; and metal or concrete posts, may be used. Certifiers are not typically concerned about paints, sealers, or whitewash used in barns or other housing facilities.

 


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References

Chudovska V. A. (2012). Faktory formuvannia vitchyznianoho rynku orhanichnoi silskohospodarskoi produktsii [Factors for the formation of the domestic market of organic agricultural products]. Ahro Svit, 18, 40–44.

Koshchaev A.H., Usenko V.V., Lykhoman A.V. (2014) Zdorove zhyvotnyikh – osnovnoi faktor effektyvnoho zhyvotnovodstva [Animal health is a key factor in effective livestock production]. Polytematycheskyi setevoi elektronnyii nauchnyii zhurnal Kubanskoho hosudarstvennoho ahrarnoho unyversyteta. (Krasnodar) 99, 201-210.

Kucheruk M.D., Zasiekin D.A. (2013). Mikroendoekolohiia kyshechnyka tvaryn. Nutritsevtyky. [Mikroflora intestines of animals. Nutricevtics], Interservis, 344.

Willer H., Lernoud J. (2017) The World of Organic Agriculture. Statistics and Emerging Trends. FiBL, IFOAM, 340 р.

Opara T. (2011) Organicheskoe zemledelie kak neobhodimyiy etap pri proizvodstve kachestvennoy i ekologicheski bezopasnoy produktsii v Ukraine [Organic farming as a necessary stage in the production of high-quality and environmentally safe products in Ukraine]. Górnictwo i geologia. 6(1),179–188.

Organicheskoe selskoe hozyaystvo i biologizatsiya zemledeliya v Rossii vyihodyat v svet [Organic agriculture and the biology of agriculture in Russia are published]. Available at: https://issek.hse.ru/press/204004104.html.

The Law of Ukraine "On the Production and Circulation of Organic Agricultural Products and Raw Materials" from 03.09.2013 № 425-VII Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/425-18

Rousset S. Deconinck K. Jeong H., Lampe M. (2015) Voluntary environmental and organics tandards in agriculture [Electronic resource] OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers. 86. Available at: http://www.oecd.org


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