DEVELOPMENT OF BREEDING-VALUABLE MATERIAL OF WINTER WHEAT UNDER MUTAGENIC EFFECT OF SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH PESTICIDES AND TOXIC WASTES



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31548/biologiya2018.287.091

R. A. Yakymchuk

Анотація


Successfulgeneticimprovementofwinterwheatcultivars ispossible when new sources of parent material are used. The issue of the efficiency in the use of unique conditions of the effect of the environmental techno-genic mutagenic factors in breeding practice becomes relevant. Mutagenic activity of soil chemical contamination in the territories of pesticide and toxic waste warehousing was studied in the work and the efficiency of their use while developing breeding-valuable material of winter wheat was established. The concentrations of total toxic substance content in the soil exceeded MPC by 5–18350 times. Frequency of visible mutations and the share of breeding-valuable ones were identified in plants of М2–М3generations. Yield capacity of the best mutants, as to their economic features, has been studied for three years. It has been found out that soil contamination with pesticides and toxic waste produces mutagenic effect which results in the increase of visible mutation frequency of winter wheat by 3.4–5.6 times. The share of breeding-valuable mutations is 24.5–60.0 %. A high probability of inheriting economic-useful traits in combination with mutations, which reduce winter wheat yield capacity, limits a promising potential of the use of direct selection of productive mutant forms. The expansion of genetic diversity of parent breeding material due to mutagenesis, induced by the contamination with pesticides and toxic waste, creates favorable conditions for its use in hybridization aimed at the implementation of a breeding-genetic program of the improvement of winter wheat cultivars.


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