Грунтово-кліматичний та екологічний потенціал території транскордонного басейну Дніпра

В. І. Пічура

Анотація


SOIL, CLIMATIC AND ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF THE AREA OF THE TRANSBOUNDARY DNIEPER BASIN

V. I. Pichura

 

Soil and climatic conditions have an independent and integrated space-time impact on the potential and degree of contribution to crop growing and getting yields, which is determined by zonal physical and geographic features of the area of the transboundary Dnieper basin. The area of arable land of the transboundary basin is 283,000 km2, or 55.4% of the total area of the basin, of which 206,000 km2 (72.8%) are located on the territory of Ukraine. In our studies we used the method of zonal soil judging by I.I. Karmanov. Spatial modeling was conducted using the methods of geostatistics and algebra of maps of ArcGIS 10.1 software product. It is the first time that for the area of the transboundary Dnieper basin there have been determined the soil, climatic and ecological potential, as well as the value of zonal soils. As a result of geo-modeling, there were created raster models and established spatial distribution patterns of six components of the value of zonal soils: aggregate index of soil properties, average density of a one-meter-deep layer and useful volume of soil, moistening factor, climate continentality coefficient, monthly average of active temperatures over 10оС. It was determined that the lands of 435 sub-basins with a total area of 282.800 km2 (55.4%), over half of which are located in the steppe zone, have the greatest potential for growing certain crops (cereals, sunflower, annual and perennial grasses) and conducting agricultural activities. Favorable soil and climatic conditions stimulated extensive and intensive agriculture, which led to a strong transformation and loss of natural landscapes on the territory of 416 sub-basins occupying 60.2% of the Dnieper River basin area. The geo-modeling results obtained are the basis for an objective economic evaluation of land resources, assessment of the soil and climatic potential of agricultural production, spatial regularities of agricultural stress and a need for priority implementation of land and water conservation measures to optimize the use of land resources in certain sub-basins on the territory of the transboundary basin for the ecological rehabilitation of the Dnieper River.

Keywords: soils, climate, soil and ecological index, soil judging, agricultural crops, river basin, Dnieper River, geo-modeling, GIS technologies

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References

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