Особливості формування мікробіоценозу ґрунту в зоні промислового бройлерного виробництва

О. С. Дем’янюк, О. В. Тертична, Л. Ю. Симочко, Л. І. Свалявчук

Анотація


FORMATION FEATURES OF SOIL MICROBIOCENOSIS IN THE ZONE OF INDUSTRIAL BROILER PRODUCTION

O.S. Demianiuk, O. V. Tertychna, L.Iu. Symochko, L.I. Svaliavchuk

 

Issues of environmental assessment of the soil microbiological state in the zones of industrial poultry management are relevant and important for predicting further changes in the biosphere under the influence of technogenesis.

The aim of the study was to identify the features of formation of soil microbiocenosis in the zone of broiler production by microbiological indices and phytotoxic effect. Microbiological studies of soil were carried out by standards methods of soil microbiology, soil toxicity and phytotoxic effects were calculated.

The results of microbiological analyzes showed that there is a change in the quantitative structure of the soil microbial cenosis, depending on the location of the contamination. Observed a heterogeneity in the number of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms of the upper layer of soil (0-20 cm).

The maximum total number of soil microorganisms was in control, non-contaminated area. The minimum number of organotrophs is evidence of significant inhibition of microorganisms under the influence of toxic substances of waste filtrate. At the same time was changing the composition of the spore microbiota, most of it observed in the soil polluted of metabolites of the slaughterhouse waste and contaminated with filtrate from the poultry. Increase of micromycetes due to the entry into the soil of the remains of litter from sawdust, leads to activation of cellulose-destroying microbiota. Also, in contaminated variants, as compared to control, the number of oligotrophs that can develop on depleted soils increases. The number of pedotrophs decreases, which is evidence of a decrease in nutrients in the soil. The toxicity of soil in the zone of industrial broiler production was estimated by using biotests Raphanus sativus var. Radicula Pers and Sinapis alba L. Showing higher sensitivity of radish, as biotest - object. Mustard white is more resistant to phytotoxic metabolites. The most toxic soil was found40 m from a poultry house, polluted with waste filtrate. In other variants the phytotoxic effect is much more than in the control. It is proved that the soil of the control variant has a weak level of toxicity, at a distance of 100 m can be attributed to the average level.

 Consequently, the microbiological analysis of the soil contaminated with waste from broiler production indicates a significant transformation of microbial community under the influence of toxicants. The most resistant to the metabolites of poultry productionand were oligotrophs and microorganisms that assimilate the mineral forms of nitrogen. The least resistant are streptomycetes and spore bacteria. The study of soil toxicity has shown that the more sensitive biotest object is Raphanus sativus var. Radicula pers compared to Sinapis alba L. Prospects for further research are to find ways of soil remediation contaminated with waste of poultry production, which is an important area of ecologization of poultry farming.

Key words: poultry farming, broiler production, soil, contamination, microorganisms, phytotoxicity


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