Динаміка родючості чорнозему типового малогумусного залежно від системи удобрення огірка посівного

О. М. Коваленко

Анотація


DYNAMICS OF FERTILITY chernozem typical loomy humus at the system of fertilizer

on crops of cucumber Seedings

О. М. Kovalenkо

 

Topicality. Cucumber inUkraine is grow annually from 55 to 70 ths. hectares. Its yield is at a low level of 10 - 13 t / ha. Not fully satisfying the needs of the population and the processing industry. Promising and relevant is the increase in gross cucumber collection due to the intensification of production through the rational use of fertilizers.

Analysis of recent research and publications. An important condition for the effective use of fertilizers is the study of the nutrient regime of the soil. Due to the fact that the productivity of plants and the quality of the crop depend on mineral nutrition in combination with photosynthesis and humidity. Classic of Agrochemical Science D.M. Pryanyshnikov noted a close relationship between plant, soil and fertilizers [2]. Plants use nutrients from soil and fertilizers in an easily soluble and readily accessible form. Nitrogen is predominantly in the form of ammonium and nitrate ions, phosphorus is in the form of anions of orthophosphoric acid, potassium is from the water-soluble forms of its salts [3, 4]. It should be note that regardless of the source of the nature of the origin of nutrients, plants use them directly from the soil solution. Given this fact, it is important to create optimal conditions for the mineral nutrition of plants.

Aim of researchers - Is to develop and substantiate the rational system of application of fertilizers on chernozem soils of the eastern forest-steppeUkraine in the cultivation of cucumbers for commodity purposes. To study the dynamics of the nutrient regime of the soil depending on the fertilizer system.

Research methods. Experiments were conduct during 2014 - 2016. At the Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of NAAS (eastern part of the left-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine). Soil of the experimental site - typical black currant was humus hardly loam on loess loam. Fertilizers were introduced locally under pre-sowing cultivation in the form of nitroamophos, superphosphate of simple granular, potassium chloride and organic fertilizer Agrovit-Kor (organic organic fertilizer containing N - 1,0 - 2,5%, P2O5 - 0,7-2,0% , K2O - 0,8-2,0%, microelements (Ca, B, Fe, Mo, Cu, Mn, Zn) and fulvohumin substances - 10 - 12%). The experiment used an early-heeled bee-pollinating hybrid Janos F1. Field experiments and laboratory tests were perform according to generally accepted techniques.

Results of the research and their discussion. The main effect on cucumber yield is nitrogen fertilizers. Which explained the increased requirements for the nutritional content. The use of fertilizers increases the content of nitrates in the soil throughout the period of vegetation of cucumber. Their largest content in the arable layer of soil (0-30 cm) was noted for the introduction of N30P60K45 locally 75.9 mg / kg for the first sampling period. By the end of vegetation, the content of nitrate nitrogen in the arable layer of soil decreased and until the completion of fruiting was - 9.1 - 15.3 mg / kg of soil. The content of ammonium nitrogen for the first selection period was 17.7 - 63.6 mg / kg of soil. Prior to fruiting, its content grew by 13.6 - 34.8 mg / kg compared to the previous selection period. The largest increase in the content of ammoniacal nitrogen ware noted in variants using the organic fertilizer Agrovit-Kor. In our opinion, a significant increase in the content of ammoniacal nitrogen is due to its release from fertilizers because of ammoniation processes. As in the case of nitrate nitrogen, the content of ammoniacal nitrogen declined substantially from 0.1 to 5.3 mg / kg by the end of the culture of the culture. Ware connected with its use, as plants on the formation of crops, and natural processes of mineralization due to the activity of microorganisms. The highest content of mineral forms of nitrogen in the soil ware preserved with the use of the full dose of Agrovit-Kor and its combined application with mineral fertilizers.

The dynamics of the mobile forms of phosphorus in the arable layer of soil in comparison with nitrogen ware less pronounced. Application of fertilizers contributed to an increase in its reserves at the beginning of the vegetation of cucumber in relation to control of 13.3 - 28.3%. The highest content of phosphorus compounds in this period ware noted in the standard (N30R60K45) - 145 mg / kg. The dynamics of mobile phosphorus compounds during the growing season was not significant, and it is content in the arable layer at the time of the completion of fruiting decreased.

The content of potassium in the arable layer of soil at the beginning of the vegetation of cucumber was 176 - 187 mg / kg. When N30R60K45 ware added, the content of potassium exchange increased by 12 mg / kg. Because of the increase of microbiological activity of the soil and saturation of the soil solution with potassium metabolic compounds at the beginning of fruiting on fertilized areas, the increase in exchangeable potassium was 7-16 mg / kg compared to the previous period of selection. The greatest increase in the content of potassium compounds ware noted for the use of Agrovit-Kor. During fruiting, the level of exchangeable potassium in the soil decreased regardless of the dose of fertilizers.

From the nutrient regime of the soil, the yield of cucumber fruit depended. Commodity yield of fruit of the bee pollen hybrid Yanos F1 for N30R60K45 increased with respect to control of 8.6 t / ha. The highest yield of agricultural products was provided by Agrovit-Kor 1.5 t / ha + N30Р24K24 - 35.9 t / ha. According to the results of the correlation analysis, it was found that the level of cucumber harvest was closely related to the content of available forms of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the beginning of fruiting (r = 0.73 - 0.77).

The introduction of both organic and mineral fertilizers contributed to the increase in the marketability of fruit crops. The highest commodity was allocated fruits of the cucumber for the introduction of Agrovit-Kor 1.5 t / ha - 85.5%, and the combined use of organic and mineral fertilizers Agrovit-Kor 1.5 t / ha + N30Р24K24 – 87.5 %.

Conclusions and perspectives. The application of mineral fertilizers substantially improved the nutrient regime of the soil when growing commercial cucumbers. The application of Agrovit-Kor provided a significant increase in the content of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen in the soil as compared to non-fertilized areas during the growing season. It contributed to an increase in the content of ammonium nitrogen at the end of vegetation culture. The highest commodity yield of cucumber ensured the introduction of Agrovit-Kor 1.5 t / ha + N30Р24K24 locally - 35.9 t / ha. A direct close correlation between the nutrient content in the arable soil layer at the beginning of fruiting and the fruit yield was found, which was at the level r = 0.73 - 0.77 depending on the nutrition element.


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