Меморіальні парки воєнної тематики в культурно-історичному, рекреаційному та ідеологічному контексті (на прикладі м. Києва)

Н. В. Гатальська

Анотація


MEMORIAL PARKS OF MILLITARY STYLE IN CULTURAL HISTORY ECREATIANAL AND IDILOGYCAL CONTEXT
(AN EXAMPLE OF KYIV)

N. Gatalska

 

Memorial parks are the main objects that fully illustrate the ideological component by elements of park space. Despite the thousand year history of the formation of the memorial complex, it is worth noting the particular qualities which art forming memorial ensemble has become in the twentieth century which is associated with a significant number of tragic events that fell in the past century, including the First and Second World Wars. An important feature of the war memorial in the former Soviet countries is not so much dedication to the tragic events of the Second World War as Soviet propaganda which is the echo of the cult "Great Patriotic War", which  replace the cult of personality of Stalin in the second half of the twentieth century. And now it activates the impact of  Soviet ideals on modern culture and personal development.

Objective: Identification the most valuable in terms of historical and ideological component objects and components of park space using the results of complex investigation of the current state of the memorial parks in Kyiv.

As research material we used the results of complex evaluation of territory of the memorial military topic parks in Kyiv. The research was made during 2011-2016. According to results of analysis of  the functional purpose parks Kyiv there was found out that among 111 objects 18 are Memorial, 10 of them - and devoted to the events of war (8 events of the Second World War).

 As a result of research summarizing conducted in the memorial park in Kyiv during 2011-2016 we made complex evaluation of territory of the objects involved into the research using  method of evaluating the cultural and historical values and means of expression of the ideological burden memorial parks. We defined the most valuable - 2 objects, valuable - 4, low value parks - parks 1 and not having a memorial values - 3.

According to the research results the most valuable objects are the park “Slava(Glory)” and Pechersk Landscape Park which include a significant influence on urban planning and compositional structure of the city, occupies a prominent place in the landscape of Kyiv Right Bank. The value of these objects are not limited to historical, cultural, educational and recreational functions, as these items are examples of landscape art where indirect means of compositional expression were used for playing ideological and symbolic meaning.

As valuable memorial parks, we defined “Babyn Yar” which is not only a symbol of he victims of the war but also an historical place those tragic events, and now it has the status of National Historical and Memorial Preserve. The main disadvantages of the park are a compositional inconsistency of memorial elements  and other components of the park space with each other, discrepancy planing structure to the current city development situation  and recreational load cause placing of playground

The "Sailors" park is a unique memorial object but at the current state it has a bunch of disadvantages which have a negative impact  on the integrity of its volume-spatial composition. Along with an important memorial value, the park is a valuable recreational center and is the only landscaped object of general use on the island of Rybalsky. So “Babyn Yar” and the "Sailors" park are important memorial objects which perform informational and educational functions, illustrate the tragic events of the history of Ukraine in the first half of the twentieth century.

The “Victory” park is connected with the tragic events of the Second World War, Its main subject is the victory over Nazism and it was Associated with a holiday. The idea of celebrating the victory resulted in the co-location of mournful memorials and amusement rides within the territory of the park. Similar features of the landscape organization can be traced also in the park of "Partisan Glory", its memorial zone has insignificant area. Which makes it impossible to dominate and define the memorial function as the main one. Characteristic of both parks is a striking contradiction between the entertainment and memorial functions of these objects - the nearby attractions and memorials devoted to World War II level out the functional and ideological significance of each other. Such contradictions were laid in the design of parks, which is evidence of the Soviet cult of war. Therefore, the ideological principles laid down in the creation of Parks "Victory" and "Partisan Glory" are aimed at Soviet propaganda "cult of war" and "great victory" and contradict modern concepts based on the tragedy of war as such and the memory of its victims. One of the solutions can be the adaptation of these parks for family rest, which needs to be solved at the legal and organizational levels.

The Puskin park belongs to invaluable objects in the memorial, but is an important recreational center.A similar situation is observed in the park of  General Potapov. In this regard, it is expedient to adapt the parks to modern conditions, radically changing their function and zoning. For objects that do not have a memorial value, there are two, completely different in their peculiarities and the idea of the park "Taraschanets" and park of International Warriors. their Combined by mismatch of the components to the park space of the memorial function, which determines the expediency of changing their functional purpose, taking into account modern recreational, urban, social realities and ideological considerations.

According to results of complex evaluation of memorial park in Kyiv the most valuable memorial objects were the park "Glory" and Pechersk Landscape Park which have a significant influence on the town-planning and compositional structure of the city, take a prominent place in the landscape of the Right Bank of Kyiv. The most controversial in the ideological plan are such objects as "Victory" and "Partisan Glory" parks, which have an entertaining character that contradict the tragedy of war itself, but is subordinated to the Soviet ideology of education of youth.


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