Агроекологічна оцінка грунтів адміністративних районів Херсонської області

Л. О. Качановська, М. А. Кондакова

Анотація


AGROECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SOILS OF ADMINISTRATIVE
AREA
OF THE HERSON REGIONS

L. O. Kachanovska, M. A. Kondakova

 

Intensive irrational use of land leads to deterioration of the agro-ecological state. The criterion for assessing the agro-ecological state of agricultural lands is the level of soil fertility, because fertility determines economic significance and cost. The territory of the Kherson region is one of the regions with the largest development in agricultural terms, where the area of agricultural lands is 71.4%.

The soil fertility level is estimated by the content of organic matter, and the humus reserves determine the agrophysical properties of the soils. The more humus in the soil, the richer it is on the main elements of the nutrition, because of the contains a large amount of macro- and microelements. The acidic soil environment is one of the factors which restrict receipt of  high-quality agricultural crops. One of the main indicators of the soil fertility is the content of a complex of specific organic substances - humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. In the eroded soils its fertility loses because their supply decreases.

On the territory of the Kherson region there are soils with very low, low, medium, high, higher and highest humus content in it. In the regions soils in terms of the average content of humus vary from 2% in the Golopristansky area to 80,7 in Nizhnosigorozhsky.

Unsolonated, weakly solonetous, strongly salted soils and saline soils are observed in the region. The non-sunny soils (53,84%) have the largest proportion. Low salinity, strongly saline soils and saline soils make up 46,16%, of which the weakly solotic soils make up 38,17%.

The territory of the Kherson region was investigating on the content of heavy metals of gross and mobile forms. An excess of maximum allowable concentration was found on lead content. The maximum allowable concentration of the mobile form of lead 2 mg / kg. In the Kalanchatsky area the concentration of mobile lead forms is 2,43 mg / kg, while in Nizhnosigorogorsky it is 2,21 mg / kg.

For the territory the disadvantage of the research is the absence of detail. The assessment of the state of the territory does not repeat the boundaries of administrative districts. But conducted studies show the best agro-ecological conditions are observed on the territory of the Velikolepetysky district, and the worst ones are in Kalanchatsky  and Nizhnosigorozorsky, where the decisive role in the assessment has an excess of the maximum allowable concentration value for lead content.


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За ґрунтовими критеріями область умовно поділяється на сім основних природно-сільськогосподарських районів в яких спостерігаються чорноземи південні з важко- та середньосуглинковим механічним складом, чорноземи південні солонцюваті, чорноземи осолоділі, переважно супіщаного механічного складу, темно-каштанові ґрунти та їх комплекс з солонцями.

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