Продуктивність буряків цукрових за традиційних та альтернативних систем удобрення

В. В. Іваніна, І. А. Павук, Г. М. Мазур

Анотація


SUGAR BEET PRODUCTIVITY UNDER CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM OF FERTILIZERS

V.V. Ivanina, I.A. Pavuk, G.M. Mazur

 

       The practice of beet sugar growing is based on the combined application of manure and fertilizers, which allows providing soil with a significant amount of organic matter, sufficient quantity of macro and microelements, and prevents soil degradation. In the conditions of acute manure shortage, there is a need for alternative types of organic fertilizers for this crop – the use of by-products and green mass of legumes for fertilizers [1], [2], [3].

       In the conditions of crop rotation, these issues are not sufficiently studied; therefore the study on the effective use of traditional and alternative organic fertilizers in the chain of winter wheat-sugar beet has a scientific interest and is relevant.

Analysis of up-date researches and publications. Research results of T.Yu. Anisimova [4] show that the application of crop by-products for fertilizers contributed to the optimization of the nutrient regime of the soil. Due to the processes of recirculation, up to 30% of nitrogen, about 40% of phosphorus and up to 80% of potassium were returned to the soil, which allowed receiving yield with lower energy and material costs and simultaneously improved humus and physico-chemical state of the soil.

Plowing into 4-6 tons of by-products per1 hectareof arable land supplied the soil with nitrogen – 23-61 kg, phosphorus – 11-25 kg, potassium – 39-91 kg, calcium - 20-30 kg, as well as with trace elements S, B, Cu, Mn, Zn. The largest nutrients coming were noted for plowing in by-products of corn for grain for the fertilizer, the least – by-products of soybeans [5], [6].

Scientists V.М. Poliovyi [7], Yu.A. Tarariko [8] believes that the use of by-products of crops, in particular straw, is one of the cheapest and environmentally friendly sources of organic matter. The application of straw for fertilizer saves about 65% of the costs associated with harvesting grain crops. In particular, the costs for harvesting, transportation, saving, spreading litter out and removal of manure from the stall, loading and transportation of manure, spreading manure out on the field are reduced.

In conditions of sufficient moisture, fertilizer systems with using green mass of legumes are efficient. The cultivation of legumes in intermediate crops for green manure enriches soil with organic matter and nutrients, promotes its phytosanitary improvement, increases fertilizers efficiency and productivity of crops [9]. 

Research results of Ya.P. Tsvey, F.P. Kasianchuk [10] show that plowing into the green mass of legumes for fertilizer on the fond of moderate doses of fertilizers increased the yield of sugar beet per 2.5-4 t/ha, sugar content - per 0.2-0.6%. Such a measure contributed to the incompaction of the soil and improvement of its aggregate state.

Research of V.M. Poliovyi [7] in the conditions of Rivne region on podzolic dark gray soil showed that with the application of N120P120K120 the yield of sugar beet roots was 35.4 t/ha, straw + green mass of mustard white + N120P120K120 - 39.0 t/ha, 40 t/ha of manure + N120P120K120 - 45.7 t/ha. Alternative organo-mineral systems of fertilizers were inferior in effectiveness comparing with traditional manure based systems of fertilizers, but were much more efficient than application only fertilizers.

       Research purpose was to study the effectiveness of traditional and alternative with application of winter wheat straw and green mass of mustard white organo-mineral systems of fertilizers on sugar beet crops, to investigate their influence on the dynamics of plant growth, yield and technological quality of roots.

      Materials and research methods. The research was carried out in the conditions of the stationary field experiment (2015-2017) of the Uladovo-Lulinetska research-breeding station, the zone of sufficient moisture of the Forest-Steppe ofUkraine.

       Soil of research plot is leached black soil which characterized by the following agrochemical properties: organic matter content by Turin – 4.1%, pH salt solution – 5.9, hydrolytic acid (Hg) by Kappen – 2.2 mg-equ./100 g of soil, sum of absorbed bases (S) by Kappen-Gilkovits – 26.4 mg-equ./100 g of soil, mobile phosphoric and potassium by Chirikov – 140 and 78 mg/kg of soil.

       The sugar beet hybrid “Bulava” was grown after winter wheat, the predecessor of which was pea. Drilling area – 100 m2, accounting area – 50 m2, repetition of the experiment is four times. Agrotechnical cultivation is generally accepted for this zone. Fertilizers were applied in the form of ammonium nitrate, simple granular superphosphate and potassium chloride. As a post-harvest legume, white mustard was grown.

       Crop yield was recorded separately with the following conversion per hectare of sown area.

           Research results and their discussion. The results of the research showed that the cultivation of sugar beet without fertilizers application resulted in low rates of biomass accumulation. The weight of one root in July was 61 g, in August - 189, in September - 392 g/plant. The application of the fertilizers in dose of NPK 160-330 kg/ha increased the mass of one root in July - per 9-28 g, in August - per 78-135, in September - per 132-223 g/plant. Sugar beets positively responded to an increase of fertilizers dose (table 1).

1. Influence of fertilizers on dynamic of sugar beet mass grow, average 2015-2017, g

var.

 

Variant

01 July

01 August

01 September

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

Without fertilizers (control)

61

189

275

437

392

214

2

N60P40K60

70

224

353

522

524

298

3

N90P60K90

86

272

402

585

591

344

4

N120P90K120

89

279

418

602

615

356

5

N90P60K90  + 40 t/ha manure

97

306

457

649

686

392

11

N90P60K90 + legume (mustard white)

84

268

408

581

612

354

12

N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha straw of winter wheat + legume

90

288

433

614

658

381

NIR0,05

4

12

18

28

26

15

Р, %

3,1

2,7

2,9

3,5

3,2

2,8

Note: 1 - root; 2- leaves

      

       The highest rates of biomass accumulation were observed for N90P60K90 + 40 t/ha of manure: the weight of one root in July was97 g, in August –457, inSeptember – 686 g/plant; growth of weight to control without fertilizers – respectively 36, 182 and 294 g/plant.

        Sufficiently dynamic growth and development of sugar beet was determined by the application of N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha of winter wheat straw + legume: the weight of one root in July was90 g, in August –433, inSeptember – 658 g/plant; increase to control without fertilizers - 29 , 158 and 266 g/plant.

       The use of an alternative system of fertilizers without plowing into straw (N90P60K90 + legume) reduced the rate of accumulation of sugar beet biomass, especially in the second half of the growing season, which indicates insufficient nutrition of plants.

       The intensity of sugar beet development reflected in the indicators of their productivity. The lowest productivity was obtained on the control without fertilizers: yield of root – 39.9 t/ha, sugar content – 17.7%, sugar harvest – 7.1 t/ha (table 2).

 

2. Sugar beet productivity under different systems of fertilizers, average 2015-2017, t/ha

var.

 

Variant

Yield of roots,

t/ha

Sugar content,

%

Sugar harvest,

t/ha

1

Without fertilizers (control)

39,9

17,7

7,1

2

N60P40K60

51,5

17,6

9,1

3

N90P60K90

57,3

17,5

10,0

4

N120P90K120

59,6

17,3

10,3

5

N90P60K90  + 40 t/ha manure

66,9

17,7

11,8

11

N90P60K90 + legume (mustard white)

60,2

17,5

10,5

12

N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha straw of winter wheat + legume

63,7

17,6

11,2

NIR0,05

2,3

0,4

-

Р, %

3,1

1,9

-

 

       The application of fertilizers in the dose of NPK 160-330 kg/ha increased the yield of roots compared with control without fertilizers per 11,6-19,7 t/ha, sugar harvest – per 2,0-3,2 t/ha and was accompanied by a decrease in the sugar content of root per 0.1-0.4%. Herewith, the increase of fertilizers dose by the sum of NPK from 160 to 240 kg/ha increased the biological harvest of sugar per 0.9 t/ha, while the further increase of the dose from 240 to 330 kg/ha - only per 0.3 t/ha, which was three times smaller. This indicates that dose N120P90K120 is an excess of the optimum parameters of nutrition of beet sugar plants.

       The highest productivity of sugar beet was achieved by application of N90P60K90 + 40 t/ha manure: yield of root – 66.9 t/ha, sugar content – 17.7%, sugar harvest – 11.8 t/ha. Organo-mineral system of fertilizers increased the yield of root to control without fertilizers – per 27 t/ha, sugar harvest – 4.7 t/ha.

        The use of an alternative organo-mineral system of sugar beet fertilization was defined as rather efficient. The application of N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha of winter wheat straw + legume resulted in the yield of root – 63.7 t/ha, sugar content – 17.6%, sugar harvest – 11.2 t/ha. Instead, the combination of fertilizers and legume was accompanied by the yield of root – 60.2 t/ha, sugar harvest – 10.5 t/ha. The lack of straw in the fertilizer caused a decrease in sugar harvest per 0.7 t/ha.

Application of fertilizers slightly increased the content of ash elements and alpha-amine nitrogen in root of sugar beet: potassium – per 0.07-0.26 mg-equiv./100 g, sodium – per 0.05-0.09, alpha-amine nitrogen – per 0.12-0.50 mg-equiv./100 gof raw weight. Herewith, the purity of the normal purified juice, as compared to the control without fertilizers, decreased per 0.3-1.0%, and the sugar loss in molasses increased per 0.1-0.2%. The investigated systems of fertilizers slightly deteriorated the technological quality of sugar beet root (table 3).

 

3. Technologic quality of sugar beet roots under different systems of fertilizers, average 2015-2017

var.

 

Variant

Content per100 groots, mg-equiv.

Juice purity,

%

Loss of sugar in molasses, %

Sugar outlet,

%

К

Na

а-N

1

Without fertilizers (control)

3,88

1,31

3,87

92,8

1,6

16,1

2

N60P40K60

3,97

1,36

3,90

92,5

1,7

15,9

3

N90P60K90

3,95

1,37

4,08

92,1

1,8

15,7

4

N120P90K120

4,02

1,37

4,02

92,0

1,8

15,5

5

N90P60K90  + 40 t/ha manure

4,14

1,40

4,37

91,8

1,8

15,9

11

N90P60K90 + legume (mustard white)

4,03

1,35

4,15

91,9

1,8

15,7

12

N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha straw of winter wheat + legume

4,09

1,36

4,08

92,3

1,7

15,9

 

Thus, in conditions of sufficient humidification on leached black soil the application of an alternative organo-mineral system of fertilizers (N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha of winter wheat straw + legume) was determined as an effective agrochemical measure in achieving a high sugar beet productivity – the yield of roots was 63.7 t/ha, sugar harvest – 11.2 t/ha.

Conclusions and perspectives.

1. The system of fertilizers (N90P60K90) formed favorable conditions for the growth and development of sugar beet, provided yield of roots – 57.3 t/ha, sugar content – 17.5%, sugar harvest – 10 t/ha; excess to control without fertilizers by sugar harvest – 2.9 t/ha.

       2. The highest sugar beet productivity was achieved by applying N90P60K90 + 40 t/ha of manure: yield of roots – 66.9 t/ha, sugar content – 17.7%, sugar harvest – 11.8 t/ha; growth to control without fertilizers by roots yield – 27 t/ha, sugar harvest – 4.7 t/ha.

3. Due to the lack of manure production, good prospects for obtaining high sugar beet yields create an alternative organo-mineral system of fertilizers. Application of N90P60K90 + 5 t/ha of winter wheat straw + legume provided yield of roots – 63.7 t/ha, sugar content – 17.6%, sugar harvest – 11.2 t/ha; increase to control without fertilizers by yield - 23.8 t/ha, by sugar harvest - 4.1 t/ha.

 


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References

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