Підвищення ефективності внесення органічних добрив

C. І. Мельник, О. В. Новічков, В. М. Полупан, М. Г. Левенко

Анотація


INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

S. I. Melnyk, O. V. Novichkov, V. M. Polupan, M. G. Levenko

 

Abstract. Purpose – research of fertilizers for agricultural crops and ways to improve soil fertility. Methods: analysis and synthesis, statistical, comparative evaluation, graphical, agrochemical, field research.

Analyzed the present situation with use fertilizers in the crop production. The existing problems and reasons that led to reduction of fertilizer using per unit of sown area were found out. Ukraine is an important player in the global agrarian market, having large agricultural land and excellent climatic conditions for farming. However, now the actual volumes of mineral and organic fertilizers entering into the soil considerably inferior to what was recorded in recent years before independence. This is mainly due to systemic crisis phenomena in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy, which continues up to the present. It is suggested rational use of available resources for soil enrichment. The most reasonable is to use the straw, which will help increase the yield of crops. It not only replenishes the soil with nutrients, but also improves its structure and physical properties. In this case, it should be avoided burning the straw on fields or use for some other purpose, because then the economic efficiency of such measures is very low or none at all. Moreover, as a result of the high temperatures, the burning process causes enormous damage to the environment. It is very important to prevent the loss of soil fertility, because with the shortage of fertilizers it constantly becomes less suitable for agricultural use.

Soils are gradually depleting in Ukraine, and their larger areas are characterized by impoverished humus, phosphorus and potassium. Taking into account that financial resources of domestic producers for purchasing the required amount of fertilizers are very limited, it is proposed to use more efficiently the by-products of growing cereal crops - straw. It contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and many microelements which enrich the soil. This information was confirmed in the current results of thematic research. Given the current high cereals production in Ukraine, the use of straw should be the most effective and optimal measure to maintain the high natural fertility of Ukrainian soils in the near future.

Keywords: arable land, soil, humus, fertilizers, straw, efficiency


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References

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