Фотосинтетична діяльність рослин картоплі залежно від технологічних прийомів вирощування

Р. О. М’ялковський

Анотація


PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY OF POTATO PLANTS DEPENDING ON TECHNOLOGICAL GROWING METHODS

R. Mialkovskyi

 

It has been studied the influence of elements of intensive potato cultivation technology, in particular, the influence of modern varieties on the ripeness of potato varieties, terms of seeding and depth of tubers planting on the photosynthetic activity of potato plants under the conditions of the Right Bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine.

It has been found that the fastest rate of formation of leaf surface in all the years of our research in the early growing season occurred in the early- ripe varieties Dyvo, Legend and Malynska white, slower in late-ripe varieties Oksamyt, Aladdin and Dar. In later periods of vegetation, the growth rate was determined not only by the group of ripeness of the variety, but also by the terms of planting and the depth of tubers planting. In the most unfavorable years for humidifying of all potato varieties in 2014 and 2015, the leaf crop index was much smaller compared to other years of research. However, even in these years, the maximum leaf area for each variety was marked in II (03-05.05), the planting period with a depth of planting tubers  6-8 cm in the middle-aged Dyvo – 30.7 thousand m2/ha and Malynska white – 31.0 thousand m2/ha.

The process of forming the area of  the leaf surface is significantly influenced by the provision of plants with moisture, as well as the temperature regime of the soil. For optimal growth and development, each organ of potato plants requires certain temperatures, which determine the terms of planting. Thus, the maximum weight of leaves is formed at a temperature of + 12-14ºС; stems – + 18ºС; at night at + 12ºС only flower buds are formed, and at the temperature + 18ºС there are only flowering and the formation of berries.

According to the results of experimental studies, it was established that the dynamics of photosynthetic potential in potato varieties of different ripeness is similar to that on which the area of  the leaf surface of plants is formed.

The formation of the value of this indicator of plant productivity had a greater impact on the terms of seeding and the depth of tubers planting than on the biological characteristics of the variety. So, in 2014 and 2016, which was dry, the photosynthetic potential was the smallest in all varieties. On average, over six years of research in the second-year plan of 03-05.05, with a depth of 6 to 8 cm of tubers, the maximum value of photosynthetic potential was 2.2 million m2/ha in the Legend variety. Thus, the smallest photosynthetic potential is noted in variants of the third sowing date (13-15.05) with a depth of wrapping of 10-12 cm.

Similar indicators of the influence of the terms of seeding and the depth of tubers wrapping on the formation of photosynthetic potential were obtained from other varieties of different ripeness.

However, in the general, the greatest positive effect on the formation of photosynthetic potential was the combination of terms of planting, depth of tubers wrapping and favorable weather conditions.

Consequently, the formation of the size of the photosynthetic potential has a decisive influence not by the biological characteristics of the variety, but by the conditions of the growth and development of plants. Thus, the photosynthetic plants activity of different varieties groups of ripeness occurs at different temperature conditions (terms of planting), different levels of moisture content, intensity and quality of solar radiation.

The magnitude of pure productivity of photosynthesis from the varieties of different groups of ripeness in our studies, regardless of the terms of planting and the depth of tubers wrapping, was 6.9-8.3 g/m² per day. Also, it should be noted that the maximum values of net productivity of photosynthesis in potato plants 8.3 g/m2 per day were observed in a variety Slavyanka first term of planting 23-25.04 with the depth of tubers wrapping 6-8 cm. In other studied variants, the net productivity of photosynthesis amounted to 6.9-8.1 g/m² per day.

From I (23-25.04) in the mid-early varieties, the net productivity of photosynthesis was: Dyvo variety at different depths of tubers wrapping - 7.2-7.8 g/m2, Legend – 7,1-7,8 g/m2, Malynska white - 6.9-7.3 g/m2. Middle-ripe varieties: Vira – 7,5-8,1; Slovyanka - 7.2-8.3 and Nadiyna - 7.4-7.9 g/m2 per day. Middle-late varieties: Oxamyt – 7,2-7,7, Alladin – 7,1-7,7 and Dar – 7,3-8,0 g/m2 per day.

A similar tendency was observed for the second (03-05.05) and the third (13-15.05) periods of planting in varieties of different groups of ripeness and depth of tubers wrapping.

Consequently, the formation of photosynthetic potential and the net productivity of photosynthesis were influenced significantly by the conditions of growth and development of plants, terms of planting and the depth of tubers wrapping, and slightly less by the biological characteristics of the variety. Adjusting values of the photosynthetic potential and the net productivity of photosynthesis is one of the most effective ways of controlling of potato plants productivity.

Key words: potato, variety, terms of planting, depth of tubers wrapping, phase, dynamics


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