FEATURES OF FRUITING SPECIES OF THE GENUS VIBURNUM L. IN INTRODUCTION IN THE FOREST- STEPPE OF UKRAINE



O. O. Demchenko, S. K. Demchenko

Анотація


Today there is an urgent need for original plants to create gardens and park facilities. Promising in this respect are species of the family Viburnaceae Dumort., which are characterized by abundant flowering and fruiting. Regular fruiting and high seed germination are the main indicators of successful adaptation of introduced plants in the new conditions of existence [3, 6, 7].

The purpose of the study - definitions of terms, intensity of fruiting and relative bearing seed productivity of viburnum in introduced under Forest -Steppe of Ukraine.

 We found that most species of the genus Viburnum fructifies annually. Fruits of viburnum are red, black, blue, yellow stone fruit less juicy drupes, broadly elliptical or round shape, assembled in thyroid cyme, sometimes solitary. Established that the earlier start time ripening fruits (II, III week of August) characteristic of Asian introduction species V. rhytidophyllum, V. vеitchii, V. burejaeticum, V. buddleifolium. Fruits of the Far Eastern species V. sargentii and V.s. 'Flavum' begin to ripen in the second week of September. The last to come into this phase of North American species V. lentago, V. rufidulum, V. prunifolium - in the III week of October.

The duration of the formation of the fruit (the difference between the fans late flowering and early ripening fruit) in most North American species: V. prunifolium (147 days), V. rufidulum (143 days), V. lentago (139 days); the smallest species the Chinese: V. buddleifolium (87 days), V. rhytidophyllum (90 days). The fruits of Lantana section species in the formation change color from green to red later - in black. Maturation of fruits V. rhytidophyllum so stretched simultaneously in the corymb can see fruits of green, red and black. Established, that V. carlesii, despite the abundant flowering annual, not bears fruit in conditions of Kyiv. We observed tying single fruit on young plants, that will soon let down. However, according to the literature [4], V. carlesii in conditions fruited Kyiv formed germinating seeds. This question needs further examination. It is established that not V. rufidulum fructifies annually.

For the duration of the phase abscission of mature fruits viburnum can be divided into two groups:

1)      1) species ripe fruit which fall within 1 - 2 weeks: V. rhytidophyllum, V. buddleifolium, V. burejaeticum.

2) species, whose fruits remain on the plants for a long time (2 - 4 months) - all other objects of study.

Quality of seeds viburnum species and its size does not depend on the weather and the growing season of the year did not significantly change. Laboratory germination of seeds viburnum ranges from 50.2% in V. lantana'Variegatum 'to the 95.1% in V. veitchii.

We investigated the intensity of fruiting species viburnum (table).
It was established that all studied species have high scores fruitingthe intensity of (4 –5), with the exception of V. lentago and V. rufidulum, which was a weak solitary fruiting (2 points). To assess the performance of introduction of seed used indicator of the relative performance of seed K, which characterizes the competitive ability of introduced species compared to aborigine [8]. Most of introduced (66.7%) bears fruit abundantly (K> 1.2), two species characterized by an average fruiting and only one species V. lentago has poor bearing (K <0.5).

Determination of terms of intensive fruiting and relative seed-cultural productivity of viburnum introducted in the Forest- Steppe regions was conducted. The phenological groups are allocated depending on the duration of the phase of ripe fruit falling off: species ripe fruit which fall within 1 - 2 weeks; species, whose fruits remain on the plants for a long time.


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Посилання


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