ВКОРСТАННЯ СТМУЛЯТОРІВ РОСТУ ДЛЯ АКТВАЦІЇ УКОРІНЕННЯ ЗДЕРЕВ’ЯНІЛХ ЖВЦІВ ДЕКОРАТВНХ ЛСТЯНХ КУЩІВ



А. П. Пінчук, Ю. І. Косенко

Анотація


UTILIZATION OF GROWTH STIMULATORS FOR ACTIVATION OF ROOT GROWTH IN CUTTINGS OF ORNAMENTAL DECIDUOUS SHRUBS

One of the common methods of propagating plants is using wood bearing cuttings of ornamental shrubs. If this methods are used, the cuttings display inherited traits of the parent shrub which is a valuable asset for decorative shrubs. The success of rooting for the cuttings depends on various factors such as the age and condition of the parent plant, origin, sex, the time of the year when the cuttings were made, the quality of the cuttings, and the phase of shoot development. The use of biologically active substances can reduce the negative impact of the aforementioned factors and significantly increase the successful percentage of rooting of the cuttings.

The use of growth stimulants for plant cuttings causes a number of problems that need to be considered during the process of vegetative propagation. Therefore, in the study of species-specific features, the impact of both the concentration of growth stimulators and the length of time of its exposure while developing wood bearing cuttings is crucial.

For restoration of the valuable ornamental plant species, we used the vegetative propagation method. In experimental studies, we used Swida alba (L.) Opiz, Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel, and Forsythia europaea Degen & Bald. Cuttings carried out in the first ten days of March in 2014 at the educational and research nursery of the Reforestation and Afforestation Department of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. The length of cuttings was 20-30 cm, harvested from parent plants aged 5-7 years, tied in bundles with labels and buried in plastic bags and loosely covered with earth into the soil to a depth of 25 cm.

In our reproduction experiments of Swida alba (L.) Opiz, Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel, Forsythia europaea Degen & Bald, we used three solutions of root stimulators. The first named "Charkor" with a concentration of 1.0 mL/L; the second, heteroauxin concentrated at 20 mL/L; and "Korneviny" with a concentration of 1.0 g/L. The controlled variable of the cuttings was soaked in only distilled water. All the samples were exposed for 18 hours.

The cuttings were planted at intervals of 10 × 10 cm to a depth of 2/3 of their length.

We used existing two year old plants that served as served as indicators for the correct amount of rooting. Planted cuttings in the experiment were divided into four categories which were excellent, satisfactory, unsatisfactory and dead. The condition of the plants was determined by their development and growth of their root systems and aboveground parts.

The study in the success for stimulating rooted lignified cuttings commonly used in the domestic production of deciduous shrubs indicated different regenerative ability of plants tested in the experiment.

It was established that the capacity for rooting of lignified cuttings was largely determined by the characteristics of growth substances used. The greatest amount of observed root production for Swida alba (L.) Opiz was 51 percent, for Forsythia europaea Degen & Bald it was 80 percent, and for Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel the percent was 63. These results were observed on the aforementioned deciduous shrubs within excellent and satisfactory categories and which were treated with "Charkor" solution.

The greatest amount of root development was with Forsythia cuttings which had 80 percent greater root growth compared to the control. The impact of solutions Heteroauxin and "Korneviny" applied to Swida alba (L.) Opiz and Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel cuttings resulted in much smaller or the same amount root growth compared to the control.

The highest weighted average condition of planting material indicate that "Charkor" made the best impact on growth and development of the root system and on the aerial parts of all the tested plants.

The greatest morphometric indicators of root development were observed in the cuttings of Swida alba (L.) Opiz and Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel with the application of "Charkor" solution.  For Swida alba (L.) Opiz’s the average root system length was 7.2 cm and the total root system was 18.9 cm long. For cuttings of Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel the average root system length was 7.7 cm and the total root system was 6.4 cm. Also, "Charkor" solution had a positive impact on the growth of above ground parts, where the height of rooted cuttings of Swida alba (L.) Opiz was 76.7 cm and the cuttings of Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel was 78.1 cm.

Our research found the largest length of the root systems to be in Swida alba (L.) Opiz with 16.6 cm to 18.9 cm. The average size of European Forsythia was 6.8 cm to 11.4cm, and the lowest was observed to be 5.5 cm to 6.4 cm in Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel. These indicators are crucial when preparing propagating material for use in open ground and in selecting the proper size and volume of planting containers.

Using the obtained results can not only increase the efficiency of vegetative propagation, but also significantly improve the quality of any undersized material for growing seedlings due to their more powerful and better branched root system.

The success and quality of cuttings of woody plants are largely determined by the characteristics of growth substances used to stimulate root formation. Cuttings of Swida alba (L.) Opiz, Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel, and Forsythia europaea Degen & Bald are improved with the application of “Charkor” solution with a concentration of 1.0 mL/L.

In conclusion, we found that the successful development of the root system in the cuttings was due to the application of the root system stimulants. Our results showed that in cuttings of Swida alba (L.) Opiz, Spiraea × vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel, and Forsythia europaea Degen & Bald there was an improvement of 51percent to 80 percent of root system development compared to the control.


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