ПОРІВНЯННЯ РОСТУ ТА ПРОДУКТВНІСТЬ МОДАЛЬНХ БЕРЕЗОВХ ТА ВІЛЬХОВХ ДЕРЕВОСТАНІВ УКРАЇН



О. П. Бала, А. Ю. Терентьєв

Анотація


CURRENT STATE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MODAL BEECH STANDS IN UKRAINE

O. P. Bala

European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a typical representative of the Central European flora. It grows in a moderate, mild climate, demanding soil moisture and rainfall. The best conditions for the growth of beech forests are in the central part of its growth area, which covers a considerable part of the Western and Southern Europe. In Ukraine, beech forest most successfully grows in mountainous conditions as well as in elevated places on a plateau in plain terrain. An analysis of the current state of modal beech stands in Ukraine will provide an opportunity to evaluate the existing potential of beech stands and can be used in the creation of growth tables for modal stands. The aim of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the current state of beech stands of Ukraine in the context of the main classification factors.

For the analysis of beech stands, we used the stand-wise database of PA “Ukrderzhlisproekt” (as of 01.01.2011), with the selection of forest areas, where beech, both as the main and accompanying species. The total sample size is 141775 plots, with the total area of 839,0 thousand hectares. The research was conducted using methods of comparative analysis based on classical forest taxation approaches using mathematical statistics methods.

Beech stands occupy almost 9% of the total forest area in Ukraine and about 20% of the area of hardwood forest species. The analysis of the database are showed that the vast majority of beech forests grow in the mountainous r of the Carpathians, namely 683.2 thousand hectares or 81.4% of the total area of beech forests, as well as Crimea - 29.0 thousand hectares (3,5%).

Analyzing the distribution of beech forests by natural zones, it can be noted that besides the mountain regions of Ukraine, beech stands grow in the right-bank Forest-steppe (12.2% of the total area of beech forests), mainly in Ivano-Frankivsk (4.4%), Lviv (4.2% ), Chernivtsi (1.8%) and Ternopil (1.7%) regions. The beech grows much less often in Khmelnytsky, Rivne and Vinnytsia (0.2% in total) and can be found a few in Cherkassy, Volyn, Kyiv and Zhytomyr regions, where the plot area is 0.2 to 7 hectares. The Polissya natural zone is represented by the Small Polesya, since almost all areas with beech grows in the Lviv region; single forest plots are found in the Rivne, Khmelnytsky, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv regions. Southern Steppe is 99% represented by the Oriental beech and is limited to the Crimean Autonomous Republic. Analyzing the average taxation parameter, it should be noted that the youngest beech forests are found in Polissya and Forest-steppe, with the best growth in height, diameter and upper class of site index, but have a less growing stock.

Beech stands of seed natural origin, grow on 87,6% of the area, of which: the vast majority of 72,5% grow in the Carpathian natural zone; 10.4% - in the Right-bank Forest-steppe; slightly more than 2% in the Polissya zone and the mountainous Crimea. Beech forests of artificial origin occupy 8.8% of the total area, of which 1.8% grow in the Right Bank Forest-steppe, others - in the Carpathians. Beech of vegetative origin, occupy only 3.7%.

Forest beech dominantly grows in fertile condition D (57.6% of the total area) and condition C (42.3%) and is almost uncommon in condition B (0.1%) and in condition A (one plot on an area of 1.8 hectares). On fertile soils in the mountainous region prefers wet conditions, and on the plains it is fresh conditions.

In the age structure dominated by middle aged beech stands (55.2% of the total area), other age groups have approximately the same area, which occupy from 9.1 to 14.7%. The largest number of beech stands grows in VI-VIII classes of age. Beech mainly grows in I (more than 41%), Ia (almost 24%) and II (almost 22%) site index classes. Less common in III site index and below (in total 9.1%) and Ib and above (in total 3.6%).

Beech forest with stand density of 0.7 and 0.8 is occupy 31.2 and 25.9% from the total area of beech forests. A significant quantity of stands have a stand density of 0.5 and below (13.9%), mainly these are overmature stands, with an average age of about 115 years. Pure beech stands occupy 20.7% of the total area, in mixed stands there is no dependence on the distribution of areas by stand composition, an average of 11.3% of the area for each group. The average rate of beech participation in mixed forest stands is 5.9 units. In addition to European beech, the main species is Norway spruce on 4.6% of the area, Silver fir - 2.8%, Common oak - 1.2%, other species - 2.1%.

A detailed analysis of the productivity of forest stands with the participation of beech in the context of the main classification of taxation indicators makes it possible to assess the present state of beech stands.


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