СУЧАСНЙ СТАН ТА ПРОДУКТВНІСТЬ МОДАЛЬНХ ДЕРЕВОСТАНІВ СОСН ЗВЧАЙНОЇ ТА ЯЛН ЄВРОПЕЙСЬКОЇ УКРАЇН



А. Ю. Терентьєв, О. П. Бала

Анотація


THE MODERN STATE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MODAL STANDS
OF PINE AND SPRUCE OF UKRAINE
A. Terentiev, O. Bala

Softwood tree species growing in large areas in Ukraine, especially they are distributed in the Ukrainian Polissia and plantations are mostly featuring birch and alder. Birch is a valuable resource and ecological- forestry object that has spread throughout the entire territory of Ukraine. Birch is a rapidly growing tree species that is quickly reproduced, especially in areas freed from the forest.

Alder in Ukraine it is found almost throughout the country, especially in Polissia, less in Forest-steppe and the Carpathians and quite rare in the Steppe, it is because a lightweight alder moisture and soil fertility.

An analysis of the current state of modal birch and alder stands in Ukraine will provide an opportunity to evaluate the existing potential of beech stands and can be used in the creation of growth tables for modal stands. The aim of this work was to carry out a detailed analysis of the current state of birch and alder stands of Ukraine in the context of the main classification factors.

For the analysis of investigated stands, we used the stand-wise database of PA “Ukrderzhlisproekt” (as of 01.01.2011), with the selection of forest areas, where birch and alder, both as the main and accompanying species. The total sample size is 546296 plots, with the total area of 1636,5 thousand hectares, of these, 352390 birch and 193906 alder plots. The research was conducted using methods of comparative analysis based on classical forest taxation approaches using mathematical statistics methods.

According to the data of the state registration of forests, the forest stands of softwood tree species occupy 739.4 thousand hectares or 11.7% of the total area of forest areas covered of all forests of Ukraine, of which 48.3 % are grow birch. The analysis of the database showed that majority of softwood forests grow in the Polissia, namely 1310.5 thousand hectares, which is 80.1% of their total area, as well as in the Forest-steppe - 117.5 thousand hectares (14.4%). Average stands indicators for alder and birch in the same climate zones is somewhat different. Alder is characterized by a larger mean age, which directly affects the average diameter, height and growing stock, but the site index class has a reversible dependence and shows a higher productivity of birch stands.

In the Polissia, birch grows predominantly in Zhytomyr region, while alder stands in Volyn, in the Forest-steppe right bank zone - birch in Rivne, alder in Lviv, in the Forest-steppe left bank - birch and alder grow most in the Sumy region, in the Carpathian region - birch in Ivano-Frankivsk and Transcarpathian , alder in Lviv, in Steppe south - birch in Zaporozhye, alder in Kherson, in Steppe north - both species most often grow in Lugansk region.

Stands of vegetative origin occupy 54,1% of the area of birch forests and 77,8% of the area of alder forests. Artificial birch forests occupy 116,8 thousand hectares, alder stands - 64,7 thousand hectares, which in the fractional part make up a little more than 11% for each species. Almost the same area of alder forests of natural origin, but from natural birch stands occupy 368.3 thousand hectares.

The distribution of softwood species varies according to the types of forest condition. Birch in favor of growth in conditions B (46.6% of the total forest area with birch) and conditions C (41.6%), mainly in wet conditions. Alder stands mainly growth in conditions C (81.1% of the total area of forests with the participation of alder) preferring wet conditions. Almost completely alder does not occur in poor conditions A, but birch grows by almost 5% of the area, as well as alder forests are completely absent in very dry conditions.

According to the age structure, middle-aged forests dominate in stands of both tree species (41.8 and 47.6% respectively for birch and alder forests from the total area). Alder stands are marked by a smaller proportion of young stands, but have a larger part of premature stands.

Distribution of forest areas with birch and alder by site index classes shows that birch predominantly grows in II (33.5% of forest area covered with forest vegetation), I (more than 29%) and III (13%) site index classes. Less birch grows in Ia (11.9%), IV and below (total 5.7%) and Ib and above (6.9%) classes. Alder also grows in II (more than 45% of the forest area covered with forest vegetation), I (more than 23%) and III (more than 19%) site index classes. Significantly, alder is growth in Ia (6.4%), IV and below (in total 3.2%) and Ib and above (2.7%) site index classes.

If compare the distributions according to the relative stocking, then can notice the predominance of birch stands of relative stocking 0.8 and above, and in alder stands -  0.6 and below. A significant number of softwood  species has a relative stocking of 0.5 and below (7.2 and 7.6%, respectively, in birch and alder stands). This stands have an mean age of about 50 years.

Alder forests have a significant number of pure stands (31.8% of the total area), while pure birch stands are only 9.0%, while birch stands are dominated by 3 to 5 units in stand composition and occupy 12.5 to 27.3% of the total birch forest area. The mean rate of participation of birch in the mixed forest stands is 5.5, alder - 7.2 units. Birch is the main species on 51.8% of the area with its participation, 26.6% of the area of the main species is pine. Alder has a much higher percentage of participation as the main species, which is 82.0% of the area of the stands with the participation of alder, 10.6% of the area of the main species is birch.

A detailed analysis of the productivity of forest stands with the participation of birch and alder in the context of the main classification of taxation indicators makes it possible to assess the present state of softwood stands.


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