ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ ВНКНЕННЯ ЛІСОВХ ПОЖЕЖ У ЛІСАХ КЇВСЬКОГО ОБЛАСНОГО УПРАВЛІННЯ ЛІСОВОГО І МСЛВСЬКОГО ГОСПОДАРСТВА



Р. В. Гуржій

Анотація


FOREST FIRES AT THE ENTERPRISES OF KYIV REGIONAL
DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND HUNTING
R. Hurzhii 

Global climate and land use changes, urbanization and insufficient funding of forest fire services have significantly aggravated the forest fire problem.

Both in the world and in Ukraine duration of the fire hazard period has increased, prolonged arid periods are happens more frequent, it’s lead to increase of annual average quantity, area and intensity of forest fires, the extinction of which requires significant financial expenses and the use of aviation. It is known that forest fire service cannot directly affect the number of fires, because it’s primarily determination by the presence of fire sources and readiness to combustion of fuel.

The study purpose is an analysis of forest burning in the region to develop an effective fire management.

Materials and study methods. In the course of the work, forest fires accounting records data of forest enterprises of the Kyiv Regional Department of Forestry and Hunting. The data is collected for a 17 year period. The number of forest fires and their area has been analyzed by months of the fire hazard period, days of the week and hours of their occurrence and liquidation. For forecasting tendencies of fires in studied forests and choosing the option and mode of fire prevention, an analysis of spatial and temporal dependencies of forest fires has been carried out.

Study results. The results of the frequency analysis in forest fires during the 17 years period testify that in the forests of the Kyiv Regional Department of Forestry and Hunting 8554 fires were eliminated on the total area of 1264 hectares of which 21.4 hectares were destroyed by crown forest fires. Analyzing the distribution of the number of fires over the years, one can conclude that the fire peak was observed in 2009, when there were 905 forest fires on the area of 333.8 hectares, which was 18.4 % of the total number of registered fires for the period under study and exceeded its average value more than one and a half times. The area of forest fires was 28.9% of the area of fires during the study period and exceeded the average annual value almost four times this year. Also, the peaks of fires were noted in other years, but a significant excess of the average annual value was not so significant. Analysis of fires in the enterprises testifies that the largest number of fires took place in the enterprises situated in the green zone of Kiev. Of these, the most fires occurred in the Kiev forest enterprise - 259 cases per year. In another three forest enterprises, fires were recorded in 1,9-2,2 times more than the average value of the whole study region: Dymersky forest enterprise - 153, Boryspil forest enterprise - 96, Vyshchedubiansky forest enterprise - 88. In forests of other enterprises, where forests or forests that are mixed in the distance from the green zone predominate, the number of fires is much smaller than in the forests near the city of Kiev. At the same time, the forest fires in these enterprises are much larger. For example, in the Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky forest enterprise, the area of fires was 131 hectares, and in the Kyiv Forest Enterprise, where the number of fires was tens of times larger, the area of fires was only 38 hectares. This can be explained by the fact that in the conditions of Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyi forest enterprise it is necessary to have more time for reacting and extinguishing forest fires. The analysis showed that in the forests of the region, the fire-hazard period lasts from March to October. Distribution of fires by months of the fire season shows the highest number of fires in the spring (April, May). This is explained by the fact that forest fuels accumulate in the autumn in autumn, which quickly acquires burning ability after melting snow cover. Also, in this period, the number of sources of fire in recreational areas has traditionally increased and there is a likelihood of passing to the forest fire from agricultural land. The increase in the number of fires during the summer is due to low relative humidity of air and high temperature and frequent droughts. The distribution of the number of fires in the days of the week shows a slight predominance of their numbers on Sunday, Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. The largest share of their number (19.31%) was on Monday. The reason for this may be the bonfires that were not redeemed during the weekend. Fires in forests recorded at all times of the day, while almost a quarter of them (24,19%) took place from 14 to 16 hours. According to forest fire data, the cause of 97% of their cases was anthropogenic factor. This problem exists all over the world, where there is a human. For example, according to Carl Wilson (1979), more than half of the forest fires in the United States begin in the 10-meter zone of roads. It is at such a distance from the paths most often get cigarette butts thrown out of the car. The analysis shows that in order to increase the level of protection of forests from fires, it is necessary to drastically increase preventive work among the population It is necessary to organize joint raids of forest guards and police officers at places of mass recreation of the population, especially on holidays and weekends. Also it’s necessary to pay more attention to the fire risk reduction of places of mass recreation of the population. In the most dangerous period of fire season, organize patrol and observation from lookout towers. It is necessary to have a special fire-fighting facility in mass recreation areas. It is also necessary to organize ground patrols of forest protection and forest monitoring using fire towers during a high fire hazard.


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