СУЧАСНЙ СТАН ДЕКОРАТВНОГО РОЗСАДНЦТВА УКРАЇН ТА ПЕРСПЕКТВ ЙОГО РОЗВТКУ



Ю. І. Косенко

Анотація


MODERN CONDITION OF DECORATIVE NURSERY OF UKRAINE AND PROSPECTS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT

Iu. Kosenko

The current state of ornamental nursery farming in Ukraine does not correspond to potential natural opportunities and available labor reserves in the country and therefore is not able to adequately meet the state's needs for planting materials for gardening and landscape gardening.

A significant proportion of imported planting stock on the market of ornamental plants in Ukraine shows that its domestic production is in a state of formation with specific problems inherent in this period. Most of them are caused by spontaneity and inadequate regulation of production of decorative planting material.

Goal and tasks

        The aim of the work is to generalize the state of domestic ornamental  nursery and to highlight the scientifically substantiated organizational and agro-technological foundations for improving the cultivation of planting material.

Objects and methods of research

        The object of research was the current state of domestic ornamental nursery and the production process of planting material according to statistical reports for 2012-2016 years and an expert assessment of the activities of private nurseries.

Results and its discussion

Our analysis of production volumes and areas for cultivating decorative planting stock in Ukraine for 2008-2012 years and over the past 5 years, indicates a significant change in their downward direction in state forestry and especially communal nurseries.

A third of the permanent forest nurseries of Ukraine represents a segment of the state nurseries. Most of them produce a rather limited assortment of ornamental plants. The state sector also includes nurseries of botanical gardens and dendroparks, the production volumes of which remain insignificant.

Private nurseries and garden centers next to the cultivation of their own planting stock, a significant place is given to the growing of the imported. The exact number of such enterprises is not known, but it can be assumed that it is about 300 enterprises. The most significant part of them is presented in the catalog on the electronic professional site gardenindustry.org.

At this stage of the formation of the domestic nursery, it should be noted that over the past 9 years, the area of communal nurseries has decreased 2 times, but the total area of private nurseries has doubled. At the same time, for the latter, not only the increase in production volumes, but also the production of high-quality planting material, which is guided by the production of European standards, is topical.

One of the main problems of the present, which inhibits the development of nursery ornamental plants is the fragmentation of the producers of planting material, which not only complicates the exchange of best practices between them, but also does not allow sufficiently lobbying the interests of entrepreneurs and protecting their rights before the central bodies of the legislative and executive authorities and more fully meet the modern needs of nursery by the state.

Analysis of the current state of ornamental nursery of the advanced countries of the European Union allows us to identify a number of characteristic features, which include the following:

- prevalence of the share of private nurseries in the total number of enterprises, which largely determine the level of ornamental nursery farming in the country;

- a significant proportion of exports of decorative nursery products of high quality and guaranteed, impeccable service;

- mass use and active implementation of the latest technologies for production of planting material with high environmental compliance;

- a wide range of planting material and its constant expansion and renewal through the use of new cultivars (varieties)

- availability, along with universal enterprises, of nurseries with a narrow specialization of production;

- high attention to marketing activities, advertising of products and new forms of its implementation;

- real assistance and assistance of state structures in the development of decorative nursery of all forms of ownership (encouragement of the introduction of new methods of production, selection of new varieties, preferential taxation of new nurseries and lending in the event of their organization, etc.).

The success of decorative nursery in such countries as the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy and others is due primarily to the availability of modern protected soil, proper scientific support of the industry and the active introduction of new technologies.

Conclusions

1. Decorative nursery farming in Ukraine has significant potential opportunities, as evidenced by the current trends in the development of private nurserys.

2. For private manufacturers, it has been and continues to be an increase in areas, development of modern technologies, expansion of the range of cultivated plants, the specialization of nurseries for the production of quality planting stock and also scientific, methodological and professional production support.

3. Nurserys of state and communal ownership should pay more attention to the effective use of areas for the intended purpose, expanding the range of crops, the introduction of modern breeding technologies and growing planting material, improving its quality.


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Посилання


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