Аналіз популяційних показників заболонників у осередках GRAPHIUM ULMI

М. Явний, Н. Пузріна

Анотація


Relevance of research. The specific susceptibility of the bream to the Dutch disease, under which in the classical representation is the mushroom defeat of Ophiostoma (Ceratocystis) ulmi (the conidial stage Graphium ulmi), the disappearance of various species of the genus Ulmus within the global range, made the breed Ili species a peculiar indicator of the pathological background of deciduous forests. In the irrigated plantings of the cells of the stem pests occur, most often, in connection with the Dutch disease, vascular bacteriosis and necrotic-cancerous diseases. The development of the cells depends mainly on the stability of the individual bream breeds, the age of the plantings and the conditions for their growth.

Purpose is to determine. Study of population characteristics of the main types of stem pests of the disease in the foci of the defeat of the Dutch disease and the establishment of the potential for reproduction of the population.

Material and methods of research. Investigating the infected stem pests in the idyllic forest stands, we put in a test area where the model trees were taken. Each model tree was cleaned of knots. The length of districts of thin and thick crust was established. Separately, on dry and dying trees the species composition was determined and the records of the completeness of the settlement were recorded, that is, the average number of families of different types of harmful insects per square decimeter of the trunk surface. On the barrel from the base to the tops, a 10 cm wide crust tape was taken. By the number of breeches of stem pests (1 dm2), the areas and density of their settlements were determined on the right side of the barrel (formula 1). By the quantity of 1 dm2 of beetles and puppets under the bark or uterine procession, they determined the production of young beetles

Research results and their discussion. Study of population characteristics and distribution of stem pests on the trees of Ulmus glabra Huds. and the dynamics of their reproduction and distribution is important, as the weakening of plantings by harmful insects and pathogens creates favorable conditions for the outbreak of their mass reproduction, and the measures of struggle are rather complex and little studied. There is a close connection between the proliferation of grafiosis and the cells for the propagation and distribution of stem pests, since mushrooms, which birdies infect trees, help their larvae digest the wood and, therefore, are in an inseparable symbiosis. Thus, when looking at the model trees with the initial stage of drying, the uterine and larval stages of the abovementioned stem pests characterized by a high population density were detected and a fairly high number of young individuals emerging from the source air openings in the cortex were found. For example, for Scolytus pygmaeus, this figure is on average 24, for Scolytus multistriatus - 3 individuals, which is a sign of an irreversible pathological process for populated areas. The reproductive energy coefficient for these types of pests is an average of 2.6, which corresponds to the second phase of the flash (own flash, that is, a period characterized by maximum population growth rates).

As can be seen from the data presented in Table 2, most often in the cells of the Dutch disease occurs Scolytus multistriatus, however, its populations form cells that are characterized by medium and low population of trees. This indicates the chronicity of cells that are characterized by a long period of existence, relatively low, although elevated (in comparison with healthy plantings), the number of insects and the size of the current fallout. For episodic cells, or cells of mass reproduction, which include trial areas 1, 3, 7 with prevalence in the population Scolytus pygmaeus is characterized by a relatively short (3-5 years) development period, a high level of size and the size of the current abandonment.

In both cases, reversible and irreversible reactions of plantations are possible, although in the second case, with mass reproduction, the full destruction of the planting is most often observed. Near the cells of mass reproduction, which are characterized by excessive population density, usually there are migration centers where insects settle in search of new habitats. These cells operate for several years until the final scattering of the population takes place and returns it to the initial level of population in the area.

Population characteristics and peculiarities of the distribution of stem pests of ilm breeds within the region indicate the occurrence of the centers of bark beetles to locations of weakened plantations. The density of the settlement, the production of young beetles and the mean values of the length of the uterus are established. The main signs of the degradation of ilium plantations as a result of the proliferation of stem pests with subsequent damage to the Dutch disease, is the intensive nature of the drying of the dug, the spreading of dryness from the south to the north, that is, first of all, the trees perish in the most lighted edges, as well as the trees adjacent to the existing centers of drying out.

Keywords: production of young beetles, settlement density, Dutch disease, stem cell pests.


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