Правова природа та характеристика земельної частки (паю)

І. А. Заплітна

Анотація


LEGAL NATURE AND DESCRIPTION LAND SHARE

I.A ZAPLITNYA, PhD student

National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine

 

Despite the fact that the concept of "land share " was introduced by the Decree of the President of Ukraine in 1994, to date no legally enforceable definition of it. In legal literature also no unanimous approach to the interpretation of the legal nature of the right to land (share) .Vpershe concept of "land share" was mentioned in the Decree of the President of Ukraine "On urgent measures to accelerate the land reform in agricultural production" of 10 November 1994 №666 / 94. In particular, n. 2 of the Decree states that the land management organizations to "implement in the shortest terms the division of land that transferred to collective ownership of land shares (shares) without releasing them into nature (on ground)". General references and references to the concept of land (share) are contained in a number of regulations.

Thus, in para. 1 of the Decree of the President of Ukraine "On the procedure for sharing land transferred to collective ownership of agricultural enterprises and organizations" dated 8 August 1995 r. №720 / 95 states that land sharing involves determining the amount of land (share) in collective land ownership of each member of the collective agricultural enterprise, agricultural cooperative, agricultural joint-stock company without allocation of land in kind (on location).

Article 25 of the Land Code of Ukraine stipulates that the privatization of state and communal agricultural enterprises, institutions and organizations lands transferred to employees of enterprises, institutions and organizations and pensioners among them the definition of each land (share).

The Law of Ukraine "On the order of selection in nature (on district) land owners of land shares (shares)" of 5 June 2003 r. №899-4 determines the list of persons entitled to land share (share).

The above regulations enable us to understand the essence of the concept of "land share (share)," but did not give its legal definition.

The definition of "land share (share)" can be found in land-legal literature, where it offered scientists. Thus, according to PF Kulinichi, land share (share) represents a notional share of agricultural land, an amount determined by the average farm in conditional cadastral hectares . T. Kovalenko determines land share (share) as estimated in monetary terms and definitions in conditional cadastral hectares of transferred to collective ownership of agricultural land of private agricultural enterprise, which defines equal interest in a member company in the land of mutual fund management and may be prescribed by the current legislation claimed in nature (on ground) into an independent land. Land plot (share) as the right to conditional land share in acres of appropriate monetary assessment without providing the total array of land determines Y.S Petlyuk.

In the literature, there are several approaches to determining the legal nature of the land (share). Some scientists believe that the land share (share) should be considered in the structure of civil relations as an object of common property. For others - a "collective co-Shared ownership of land" .

Regarding the first approach should be noted that the Land Code of Ukraine (as amended as of 1992), all common property in land is not provided. The Land Code of Ukraine in 2001, namely in his art. 88, states that in the case of common property in land ownership, use and dispose of it done with the consent of all owners. However, given the fact that in the case of sharing the land owners can hundreds, if not thousands, of the right common property in this case is actually unreal.

If we consider the land share as the object of common property, as a specific thing, in this case a land share shall extend the legal regime of things. In view of the above, it is necessary to agree with V.M Ermolenko similar to its definition property unit that spread on land share things legal regime is limited due to its convention, such as the mode to be specifically identified only way. In turn, land share (share) specifically defined such a thing is not. Thus, according to V. Ermolenko, the legal nature of property share is revealed through its consideration as a set of things for which there can be subjective rights and obligations within the appropriate legal regime. Another component of understanding the property unit as a subjective property owner the right to claim the property certificate: a share of income from use; allocation of property share in kind; damages caused by illegal actions of others around the mutual fund or its part.

In our view, most fully reveals the legal nature of the land (share) understanding of how the claim that there is a binding law.

Norms of civil law liability is determined as Ukraine relationship in which one party (the debtor) is obliged to act in favor of the other party (the creditor) a certain action (transfer property, perform work, provide services, pay money, etc.) or to refrain from certain actions and the creditor may require the debtor's performance of his duties.

Based on the total amount of the claim, this right concerns the possibility of recovery of property in kind at the termination of membership relations.

Based on the above signs and arguments, we believe that the land share  a notional defined in conditional cadastral hectares and not defined outside the share of agricultural land transferred to collective ownership, allocation by a separate plot of land has the right to require a member of the collective agricultural enterprises at the exit from it.

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Посилання


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