Концепція побудови вищої юридичної освіти ранньої радянської доби: уроки історії

Л. В. Міхневич



L. V. MIKHNEVICH, Candidate of Juridical Sciences, associate Professor,

Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman


The article is devoted to the analysis of Soviet educational reforms of the early 1920s Focused attention on the main objectives of these reforms that led to the break-up of the pre-revolutionary system of higher education. Attention is paid to the formulation of the Soviet system of legal education, which was presented to the law faculties of the institutes of national economy in Kiev, Odessa and Kharkov.

It is established that the Soviet higher education reform was designed to solve several problems: to create a new system and organizational forms of educational institutions, change the system, adapt learning material to the requirements of the times, to develop new techniques, to upgrade the faculty and to carry out proletarianization of the student body. She continued during the 1920-ies and passed through several stages. In the first phase (early 1920s) were eliminated universities, education industry higher education institutions (colleges and institutes), created the legal framework in the field of education and the system of state education authorities. Reformed the internal management of universities, but the faculty saved the Cathedral and the internal structure of institutions. Also developed new curricula, programs, new forms and methods of work. Changed the order of the academic staff, which began Ukrainization and proletarianization, entered planning the layout, open rabfak.

It is revealed that for the second phase (mid-1920s) is characterized by attempts to raise the quality of teaching. The institutes were translated into a 4-year apprenticeship. Cancelled pickup and increased requirements for candidates, but sharply reduced sets in the universities. In the system of Central management of education initiated the command. The structure of Metropolitan institutions has been eliminated, begin a fee. Course training system replaced the credit, the academic year was divided into trimesters. The formation of the teaching corps of the contest changed the appointment and conducted the registration of researchers, dividing them into internal and external professors and lecturers І And II group.

In the third stage (late 1920s) were unified education, which has eliminated the differences of education systems in the USSR and the RSFSR and the state monopoly in educational activities. The essence of unification was the creation of a number of industry universities with the submission of their sectoral commissariats. Modified the management of the institutions, the Board abolished the position of Dean of the replaced Director, who solely was responsible for all the Affairs of the University. Teaching in the institutes was translated into full-time and semester system. Established periodization of the school year. Unification began the process of administrative subordination of education to the Union leadership.

Special attention is given to reforming legal education. Was implemented the idea of merging the theory and practice of law and preparation on this basis of skilled labour. The new plans, which included specialization in judicial, administrative and economic-jurisconsults Department, offered students to study common law subjects and optional courses. Harmonized curriculum for law faculties of the institutes of national economy was adopted in 1924, and simplified training and eliminated the burden much subjectness. Plans withdrew from the history and dogma of Roman law, the history of Russian law, the history of Western Russian law.

It is concluded that the Soviet reforms were quite radical, was based on the Soviet ideological doctrine that completely changed the pre-revolutionary educational system and was characterized by extreme form of rationalism education, the adoption of a team management style and a focus on quantitative indicators at the expense of quality learning. In article attempt to reveal the relationship between some of the government measures in the field of education with modernity, which can be useful in the process of preparation of legal personnel.

Повний текст:



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