Можливості техніко-криміналістичного забезпечення розслідування кримінальних вибухів

Ю. П. Приходько

Анотація


OPPORTUNITIES OF TECHNICAL-CRIMINALISTICS MAINTENANCE OF INVESTIGATION OF CRIMINAL EXPLOSIONS

Yu. P. PRYKHODKO, senior teacher

The National Academy of Internal Affairs

 

A fast growth of crime rate including such kinds as homicide, terrorism, banditry, illegal possession of weapon and explosive materials and crimes connected with criminal explosions forces to improve ways and methods of detection and elimination of circumstances that foster to this.

Criminalistics as a science has to support investigation of crimes and also provide prevention of crimes being prepared and cessation of started ones.

Technical-criminalistics support of prevention and investigation of crimes facilitates to solution of mentioned tasks.

Such famous domestic and foreign scientists as V. N. Aginsky, A. Yu. Apollonova, I. I. Artamonova, M. I. Astashova, V. P. Bahіn, L. V. Bertovsky, T. M. Bulba, O. A. Bukhanchenko, S. I. Vinokurov, V. P. Vlasov, Y. M. Dіldіn, A. V. Іschenko, A. M. Yegorov, S. M. Kolotushkin, M. V. Kobets, V. V. Martinov, M. A. Mikhailov, I. D. Motornyi, I. P. Pantelєєv, V. І. Pascenco, V. M. Pleskachevsky, A. S. Podshibyakіn, M. A. Pogoretsky, V. V. Polishchuk, V. A. Ruchkіn, A.Yu. Semenov, Ye. N. Tikhonov, A. A. Toporkov, A. B. Schmerego and others study separate questions concerning technical-criminalistics support of investigation the crimes including those connected with the usage of explosive materials and also criminalistics support of explosions investigations.

However, the question concerning the presentation of specifics of technical-criminalistics support of investigation of crimes connected with the criminal explosions have not been clarified in scientific literature yet.

That is why at this article questions of usage of technical-scientific ways and methods, support, prevention and investigation of crimes connected with criminal explosions have been studied.

There is the definition at the article what technical-criminalistics methods are, their classification and groupofication. The question of classification of technical methods according to the forms of their usage and exactly an inspection and investigatory (search) activities.

According to scientific literature it can be stated that technical facilities are divided on scientific facilities and special equipment. At the same time the special equipment is divided on stationary and field.

According to signs of functional purpose the special equipment is divided on: individual methods of protection; collective methods of protection and transportation of explosive devices; methods of detection and identification of explosive devices and materials, methods for contact and remote work with explosive devices; special transportable technical-explosive laboratories.

In applied meaning technical-scientific methods that are used during prevention and investigation of criminal explosions are classified by their origin, general purpose and constructive features and also by their functional purpose.

At studying of the sites of criminal explosions so called “methods of field criminalistics are used- technical-criminalistics ways and methods of work with proofs which are used or can be used not at the investigator’s office or expert’s laboratories but directly at «field conditions» – at the crime site during the examination or conducting at this site different investigatory (search) activities or research expert operations.

The author considers that for functional purpose technical-criminalistics methods and ways of studying of criminal explosions can be classified on such groups: technical-criminalistics ways and methods of search (revelation) of the explosive device and tracks of its usage, technical-criminalistics ways and methods of fixation and extraction of track information from the site of the criminal explosion; technical-criminalistics methods of explosive objects studying; technical-criminalistics ways and methods of criminal explosions prevention.

Therefore it must be mentioned that the effectiveness of the usage of the listed methods depends on a lot of factors, including their availability at sufficient quantity, ability of usage, opportuneness of technical service, repair and so on. The list of technical-scientific ways and methods that are used for prevention and investigation of criminal explosions has an important meaning for creation of new and development of existing technical methods. Also there is the information which is necessary for preparation of practical-studying literature concerning the usage of ways and methods of criminalistics technic of such orientation.

The creation of effective ways and methods of revelation, extraction, examination and disposal of explosive objects will permit to increase the level of material and technical supply of technical-explosion units with modern technical-scientific resources (complexes). That is why these questions have to be solved inside the state as well as at the international level. Thus, because the fight with the criminal explosions and favourable for them conditions cannot be isolated inside one state, we have a strong belief that is essential to have the constant experience exchange between corresponding specialists from different countries and mutual aid concerning the technical equipping of units that investigate such kinds of crimes and prevent the commitment of criminal explosions.

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Посилання


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