Метод планування маршрутів руху безпілотної збиральної техніки із застосуванням безпілотних літальних апаратів

С. А. Шворов, Д. С. Комарчук, Лукін В. Є., Чирченко Д. В.


sensing plants using UAV


The UAVs is used in farming for identifications problem areas of the field, control of quality field work of agricultural machinery and so on. Some one attempts to use drones to monitor the status of mineral nutrition of plants based on so-called vegetation index (VI), calculated quantitative characteristics reflectance spectrum in certain frequency bands. The difficulty of solving this problem is related to the need of measuring spectral characteristics of vegetation in conditions of variable lighting, ie the implementation of Radio Frequency correction. Today there are several methodological approaches to radio frequency correction for UAV, so the evaluation and selection of optimal solutions for computing and VI is the purpose of our work.

VI used from the beginning of 70 years after the launch of the US Landsat satellite monitoring program. Thanks to the experience gained implementing satellite monitoring technologies and continued as currently operated several dozens of satellite platforms, which provide information for more than two hundred different Vegetation Index (VI). Typically, the RF correction using optical standards, which serve as objects on the Earth's surface with stable spectral characteristics: deep-water reservoirs, roads and so on. However the UAV flying height of several hundred meters using natural optical standards is difficult, due to shortage of industrial fields.

As a variant of decision of light calibration  was to used the amendments to light using additional special sensor lighting in addition to the main sensor . These include light sensor LightSensor of MicaSense, which is a 5-band sensor that is connected directly to the camera MicaSenseRedEdge (specialized camera for use with unmanned platforms). These dynamic calibration of the sensor is recorded in additional metadata received basic sensor. JianfengZhou TIFF images (2016) in using such equipment was good reproducibility, but this solution can be used in a dense cloud, or in a clear sky. If in heaven there are some clouds, these options do not fit, which limits its use.

For experiments we used a standard digital camera for UAV PHANTOM VISION FC200 and camera from smartfonivLenovoS660 and A1000. Use -Smartphones was due to the experience of using this equipment as a cheap alternative to professional equipment to be placed on unmanned flying platforms. Adjustment of optical sensors was to adjust the number of radiation hits the photosensitive matrix by setting (changing) the term exposure. Data on the aperture and exposure duration and other parameters obtained from adjustment exiff file, which formed automatically every dimension. Experimental studies conducted in the premises of the combined natural and artificial light (discharge lamps). When shooting parameter "white balance" manually set value - "cloudy".

The analysis of materials of this study can be argued that a calibration compared to the previous (template) gives no worse reproducibility and a wide margin for the application.

Calibration based on the reduced duration exposure gives good results for the convergence of all components (R2≥0,94), but with insufficient exposure possible substantial error (EV ± 1). The highest accuracy for the full range of exposure compensation received in the calibration provides the largest LightValue, with a maximum convergence results (R2≥ 0,99), but depending on the gauge are created for a specific brand of equipment (sensor).

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