Дослідження теплових викидів біотеплогенератора зернової сушки

В. С. Федорейко, Р. І. Загородній, І.С. Іскерський

Анотація


Study of thermal emissions of bioethlenenerator of grain dryer

V. Fedoreyko, R. Zagorodniy, І. Iskersky

 

The energy saving of boiler combustion technology depends to a large extent on the kind of fuel used. Since biofuels are the world's most promising today, burning research is relevant to determine the ways to ensure its effectiveness.

It should be noted that biomass has certain features that distinguish it from traditional energy resources. In addition, some of the characteristics of solid biofuels, such as density, particle size, humidity, by shredding and sealing, can be changed. Therefore, in the process of operation of heat generators in order to increase the energy efficiency of combustion of solid biofuels, these characteristics should be taken into account.

When combustion of organic fuel in power plants in the atmosphere, air and flue gases are supplied with pollutants and greenhouse gases.

Therefore, before putting into operation solid-fuel heat generators, it is necessary to conduct environmental studies of their emissions into the atmosphere.

The purpose of the study is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the heat generator in order to reduce harmful emissions from flue gases.

The basis of the research process is mathematical models of biofuel combustion in heat generators. The study and measurement of harmful emissions in the flue gases of a biotep-generator allows estimating the efficiency of the boiler.

The process of combustion of fuel - a combination of chemical reactions of oxidation of its combustible elements, accompanied by a significant release of heat and light. To maintain the combustion process, an oxidizer, oxygen, is required. The speed of the chemical reaction increases with increasing temperature. Therefore, in the furnaces of the heat generators provide continuous supply of air in sufficient quantities to burn biomass and maintain high temperatures. With complete oxidation, the formed products can no longer connect with the oxidant and release heat.

The reasons for incomplete combustion of fuel may be as follows: not all combustible elements are oxidized, oxidizing combustible elements, products that could participate in the combustion process are formed. With incomplete oxidation of combustible elements, there is excess emissions in flue gases.

Also, for the efficient combustion of solid fuels, it is necessary to ensure coherent control of the individual modules of the biotechnological generator's electrotechnology complex, in particular the decision of the problem of controlling the frequency of rotation of the electric drives of the fan and the screw, which determine the batch volumes of combustion components.

Therefore, the actual task is to ensure the energy efficiency of the heat generator by identifying regulated biofuel dosage regimes, based on the analysis of the percentage composition of oxygen in flue gases. Measurement of the excess oxygen coefficient in flue gases is carried out by a gas analyzer, which also measures the content of harmful emissions in flue gases.

In the course of industrial research, emission measurements were made in a solid-fuel heat generator on a grain elevator during the combustion of various types of fuel by a specialized laboratory using a gas analyzer Sigma. At this heat generator, we applied our method of efficient combustion of solid biofuels. The analysis of normative documents showed that there are approved emission standards for combustion of sunflower husk only. We used other types of fuel, namely: wood pellets, sawdust, waste silos.

The received indicators of harmful emissions are lower by 30% than approved in normative documents. Consequently, the control system developed by our heat generator ensures high environmental performance.

Conclusions 1. It is proved that solving the problem of increasing energy efficiency of solid-fuel heat generators is possible by implementing a rational dosage of combustion components using regulated modes of operation of the fuel supply and fan auger based on the analysis of the composition of flue gases.

2. Efficient combustion of solid biofuels in the heat generator provides a high efficiency and reduces harmful emissions to the atmosphere by 30 %.


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Посилання


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