Универсальный опрыскиватель для плодовых питомников

Р. А. Филиппов, Д. О. Хорт

Анотація


VERSATILE SPRAYER FOR FRUIT NURSERIES

R.A Filippov., D.O. Khort

 

Relevance. The efforts of researchers, designers, engineers, testers, and innovators focused on the development of such sprayers, which would provide the maximum possible efficiency from the use of expensive pesticides for its intended purpose taking into account the preservation of the ecosystem.

Analysis of recent researches and publications.

With 80-ies of the last century with the creation of technical means for chemical protection of plants becomes important issue of the impact of pesticides on the environment, and presently it already is a priority. In all developed countries of Western Europe has strict principles on the use  plant protection products including safety of the environment, production  staff and a significant reduction  applied pesticides that will guarantee sustainable agriculture.

The purpose of the study. To substantiate and to develop the construction  a high clearance farming sprayer for protection of plants from pests, diseases and weed vegetation in the fruit nursery, providing in comparison to the base machine productivity growth in 1,5 – 2 times, reduction  labor use by 12-18%, improve the reliability, quality and versatility.

Materials and methods. The main method  justification of design parameters  a high clearance farming universal sprayer between rows of garden plantings and nurseries is computer aided design. Studies were conducted in accordance with the following methods: "Methods  evaluation  new agricultural machinery consisting of zonal agricultural technologies"; "Methods  design of technological processes in crop production".

Conduct preliminary tests meet the requirements of GOST 20915-2011, 53053-2008 GOST, GOST R 54784-2011; GOST 26025-83, 27388-87 GOST, GOST 12.2.002-91, GOST R 53489-2009.

Geographically, the tests were carried out in p. Mikhnevo, Moscow region 09.06.14 - 31.10.14, in the garden – nursery of GNU VSTISP, Moscow region, Leninskiy R-he fruit garden of GNU VSTISP, Moscow region, p. Izmaylovo with 15.07.15 on 20.10.15. Soil and climatic conditions were typical for Moscow region.

The results of the research. Sprayer-herbicide is attached to a high clearance farming energy with electronic control, SUVES and is a mounted on the platform structure, which is attached with quick connects devices (BSU) on the frame of the power unit. The sprayer consists of a frame on which are mounted all the components and parts, tank, suction filter, pump, regulator, rail pressure gauge and piping systems, parallelogram rod to the Central pendulum suspension with automated remote control of its height and inclination.

At the same time the sprayer-herbicide can handle up to 5 rows with a size of 130cm in nurseries. The angle of the spray horizontally limited to the rubber plates and they can be adjusted from 45 to 70 degrees.

The module of the sprayer can be easily adapted for the targeted application of pesticides and liquid mineral fertilizers through the use of on-Board computer with integrated GPS, for example BRAV0 ARAG 400S, bow thrusters, Smart Steer and job cards to Deposit plant protection products (NWR), block electromagnetic compensating valve with a flow meter controlled from a microprocessor and modular dosing system and distribution of working solutions of pesticides and liquid fertilizers. Integrated GPS navigation provides movement along the curves, and on parallel tracks, can help in creating accurate maps of cultivated plantations, which in the future will allow us to use them more correct (accurate on quantity and location) making the dressing, etc.

The introduction of differentiated doses of solutions of mineral fertilizers and pesticides in every area of the processed fruit nursery or rearing of seedlings can be carried out, as in a two-step process offline modes based on preliminary mapping and assessment of soil fertility and phytosanitary status of nursery and on-line mode, when by means of special sensors installed on the machine monitored the debris or power plants.

At a speed of 5-8 km/h and the hydraulic pressure of 0.45 MPa (maximum 1.5 MPa, flow up to 110 l/min), it processes in the fruit nursery in a single pass, five rows of plants with the working fluid flow rate to 1000 l/ha (herbicide system — up to 100 l/ha) and a capacity of up to 5.1 ha/h normal time (replacement and operational performance of 4.84 ha/h). Machine reliably performs all the technological operations, and during the acceptance testing technical failures were observed. Quality and performance-technological performance of the sprayer comply with the requirements of the technical specifications and even slightly exceeded the stated in the cover sheet surface of fine fractions of droplet spray and 47.0 % (TТ — 11,0 %).

Raw cards as a result of field tests not detected. Distribution of droplets according to the density of the coating in excess of 150/cm 87.1 per cent (TТ — not less than 60 %), with an average density of coating 14.8 per cent (TТ — less than 25 %) and low plant density (less than 24 pieces/cm2) is absent (TТ — less than 6.0 %). Mass-median droplet diameter falls within the requirements of the TOR and is on fractions, respectively: large — 738,4; medium — and small 208,1 was 74.3 µm. The cost of mechanized work in this model sprayer is 757 rubles/ha under a specific fuel consumption of 5.3-10.4 l/ha depending on the working speed. Approximate payback period of additional capital investments is 2.8 years.

 

Сonclusions

Differentiated sprayer provides high accuracy differentiation doses of working solutions of mineral fertilizers and pesticides, as during the movement of the machine and the working width, which gives a further the differential making savings of chemicals up to 14%, and significantly increases the yield of horticultural products per unit area.


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Посилання


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