Дослідження обробки незбираного молока імпульсними електричними полями

Р. С. Святненко, А. І. Маринін, О. В. Кочубей–Литвиненко, О. П. Фурсік



R. Svyatnenko., A. Marinin., A. Kochubei-Litvinenko, A. Fursik


Among the food, milk is a special place. The known technologies for prolonging the storage of milk are based on thermal treatment (pasteurization and sterilization) and the application of ultrafiltration. Pre-pasteurization of fresh skimmed milk on farms or grass plants at a temperature of (72-75 °С) is also widely used, followed by cooling and storage at a temperature (6-8 °С) before processing. However, these methods have significant disadvantages associated with a decrease in the content of vitamins, essential amino acids and other indicators that can be saved by changing the methods and modes of heat treatment.

An urgent problem is the replacement of thermal methods and preliminary heat treatment on physical non-thermal. This issue can be solved by using strong pulsed electric fields.

The following areas of research are devoted to the numerical work of Professor Boyko MI.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the duration of milk storage after treatment in pulsed electric fields (IEP).

In carrying out researches the experimental installation, developed by specialists at NTU "Kharkov Polytechnic Institute" was used.

The analysis of the oscillogram of the action of the EPE of processed milk shows that the electric field intensity in the working chamber during milk processing for 20 seconds was 1.5 kV /mm, and at 30 s - 0.9 kV /mm, with the duration of the front of the pulse of 35 ns.

Research results. For the treatment of whole milk, an IOP with a strength of 30 kV/cm and a pulse duration of up to 35 ns, a non-thermal effect of the temperature increase of the raw material to the region of temperature of temperature and pasteurization was observed. At the same time, the temperature increase correlates with the intensity and duration of the treatment. Thus, the highest milk temperature (above 80 ° C) during the IPP treatment was achieved at a voltage of 30 kV /сm and a time of 30 seconds.

In this case, an increase in temperature occurs due to non-thermal effects. The energy transfer is carried out at the level of the molecules as a result of the interaction of the current electrons with the ions or conductor atoms, and part of the energy remains in the latter. The thermal effect of the current leads to a faster movement of the conductor particles, after which its internal energy increases and transforms into heat.

The analysis of the above results shows that in the processing of milk at a pressure of 30 kV/cm for 20 seconds, the pH decreased after the first day to pH 6.57 and continues to decrease rapidly for ten days to pH 4.12. This rapid decline can be explained by the fact that at the processing of IEP in the given mode did not reach the temperature of pasteurization.

It was also found that the rates of control and processed milk almost did not change for eight days.

The time of stifling control curtailment was 11 minutes, processed milk of the IEP fields 12 minutes. This suggests that the processing of whole milk from the IEP allows it to be used in cheese making technology.

Conclusion. It was established that in the treatment of whole milk by pulsed electric fields in the range of intensity of 30 kV / cm and processing time of 30 s, the non-thermal effect of the raw material temperature increase to 80 ° C was observed. It was found that the rate of acidity in IEP processing is less than control. It has been found that the treatment of IEP does not have a negative effect on the puddle clot. The possibility of heat treatment of milk due to nonthermal effects arising from the impulse action of electric fields has been proved.

Повний текст:



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