Модернізація конструкції водонапірної башти з використанням нагрівальних кабелів

В. Є. Василенков

Анотація


MODERNIZATION OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WATERPOWER TOWER WITH THE USE OF HEATING CABLES

 

V. Vasilenkov

In agriculture, for a variety of technological needs requires a sufficiently large amount of water. Therefore, the organization of reliable uninterrupted water supply to agricultural consumers is one of the most important tasks of agricultural production.
Currently, most water supply systems in the village are organized using relatively cheap metal water towers Rozhnovsky. Their significant disadvantage is the icing of the inner surface of the walls in the winter season of the year.
 It should also be noted that in recent times, both the rural population and the number of farm animals have decreased significantly, that is, water consumption has fallen, and the towers have been designed and put into operation earlier. The towers have begun the process of stagnation of water, while the quality of water is lost, and in the winter, water freezes and as a result - the failure of the towers.
Thus, the prevention of excessive icing of the towers of Rozhnovsky is now an urgent task.

The peculiarity of the problem stems from the well-known fact that activity, namely the lives of people and animals, is impossible without water. People and animals can be for weeks without food, and without water - only 2-3 days. Therefore, the violation of the water supply network with the towers of Rozhnovsky leads to severe consequences. Especially dangerous is the freezing of this network for the conditions of severe winter of recent years for the Kievregion, when the minimum negative temperature reached the maximum -25-32 ° С, for the south-eastern part of our state - more -40 ° C. It is known that at lower temperatures below 4 ° С, the volume of water begins to increase by about 10%, while freezing - the pressure in the enclosed space reaches 250 MPa [1]. Under the influence of high pressure there is a gap (defrosting) of the most stable pipelines and towers. The defrosted water system, as a rule, is not subject to repair and requires a complete replacement.
In this case, first of all, the operation of systems of automatic regulation of water level (level sensors) is violated, the useful volume of the tower decreases and in the end its mechanical destruction. As shown by the practice of using the protection of the tower against icing through its thermal insulation in some farms is ineffective, since it requires significant additional costs, thus reducing the main advantage of the tower of Rozhnovsky - its cheapness, while accelerating the corrosion of the walls of the tower when healing between them and heat insulation moisture. It is also difficult to detect and eliminate possible leakage. However, there are known cases of a significant increase in the stability of the water tower to icing through the full use of heat from the water coming from the well.
Despite the fact that the phenomenon of defrosting water systems has long been known and well-known catastrophic effects of these phenomena, as shown by literature and patent search, the problem of protecting the water supply network from freezing is still far from its satisfactory practical solution.

The purpose of research. Determination of structural - regime parameters of the water tower Rozhnovsky, providing its performance at negative ambient temperatures.
        Materials and methods of research. The technique of thermal flow through a cylindrical wall, differential and integral calculation methods is used.

        Research results. The method of protecting the water tower with heating is proposed cables for water level sensors of an electrode type. The heating of water around vertically located in the tower of electrodes can be carried out by self-regulated heating wires at a temperature of 65 ° С - 110 ° С.
The wires are cut off in accordance with the length of the submerged electrodes, with their characteristics listed in the table, do not change. In addition, the wires do not overheat when working in the air and when laying with the intersect themselves. If necessary, they can be folded in the required places.
The bipolar wires 2 (Fig. 3) are arranged vertically and in parallel with each of the three metal electrodes 1 (general, upper and lower levels) in the Tower of Rozhnovsky 4. Connection of the wires to the voltage (220 V) and their mounting, as well as the mounting of the electrodes, is carried out on the insulation panel 3 at the top of the tower, not accessible for moisture and protected lid.

The lower edges of the wires should be insulated so that the current conductors could not come into contact with the water and the tower case.
The number of wires and their distance in relation to the electrodes are chosen from the practical considerations on the site, depending on the type of wires, the design of the electrodes and the predicted winter minus temperature values.

Conclusions


1. As a result of the analysis of Rozhnovsky's water towers in the winter, it has been established that at a temperature of -10 ° С the temperature in the tower will be 5 ° C in 5,5 hours, and the thickness of ice in 140 hours will be about 45 cm, and At -30 ° C, the temperature in the tower will be 5 ° C in 2 hours, while the same thickness of ice will be reached in 40 minutes.
2. Increase of its stability to icing can be achieved by modernizing the design of the water tower, namely the use of heating cables located near the level sensors.
3. Economic effect at the expense of reducing the failure rate with the use of heating cables and as a result of increasing the reliability of water supply is 5194 UAH. for one tower for 2012 prices.

 


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Посилання


Novikov, Yu. V., Sayfutdinov, M. M. (1981). Water and life on earth [Voda y` zhy`zn` na zemle.]. Moscow: Nauka, 184.

Petko, V. G. (2008). Non-freezing water tower [Nezamerzayucha vodonapirna vezha]. Kyiv: Rural machine, № 2, 32.

Petko, V. G. (2009). Improvement of the design parameters of the Rozhnovsky water towers to increase the stability of the bone to icing [Usovershenstvovaniye konstrukty`vny`h parametrov vodonaporny`h bashen Rozhnovskogo dlya povysheny`ya stojkosty` k obmerzany`yu]. – Moscow. Proceedings of the Orenburg State Agrarian University, № 4, 85–86.

Ryazanov, A. B. (2011). Investigations of the dynamics of water cooling in the water tower of Rozhnovsky [Y`ssledovany`ya dy`namy`ky` ohlazhdeny`ya vody v vodonapornoj bashne Rozhnovskogo]. Moscow: Proceedings of the Orenburg State Agrarian University, № 1. 50–51.


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