S. R. Hamza, I. V. Vilkova, D. N. Dmitrov


Kojima and his co-authors in 1999 extracted ghrelin from the rat gastric mucosa. Since then, many scientists have begun exploring this unique peptide that stimulates food intake and leads to obesity in humans. The researchers report that ghrelin stimulates appetite in human and rodents, as well as having a positive effect on the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion, gastric motility and reduces blood pressure, affects the activity of the sympathetic nervous system, reduces the sympathetic response to mental stress. Fundus shows the highest expression of ghrelin level, hormone existents but all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, testes, pancreas, and some other organs and systems. In gastric mucosa ghrelin-producing cells located in the thickness of the mucosa. In circulation ghrelin exists in two main forms: N-octanoyl-modified (acylated) ghrelin and DES-acyl (nonacylated) ghrelin. They exert opposite biological activity. Nonacylated ghrelin is also present in significant amounts in the stomach and blood. Indeed, many important questions about the production of ghrelin remain unanswered and are therefore subject to future research. Ghrelin, stomach, kidney, hypophisis, cells, pyloric canal, liver, rat.

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