Estimation of agricultural land for organic production at the regional and local levels, the arrangement of the territory

N. A. Makarenko, R. V. Podzerej

Анотація


Organic production is one of the perspective directions of development the agricultural sector. Ukraine has regions with favorable conditions for organic production at the same time, it belongs to the countries with the most difficult environmental situation: 5 regions have suffered after the accident at the Chernobyl zone of high natural radioactivity and intensive exposure to the industry. For the successful implementation of organic production in Ukraine required should be a preliminary assessment of the environmental situation and determine the suitability of farmland at different levels of the arrangement.  Estimation of agricultural land requirements for organic production at the regional and local levels was carried out in conditions of Cherkasy region. The applicability of the grounds at the regional level is carried out according to the results of the analysis of monitoring data of soil agrochemical and certification of agricultural lands; information on the location of the industrial enterprises and facilities can pollute the environment, main and regional roads. The applicability of the grounds for the local level arrangement of the territory carried out by the example of FG af "Basis." the status of the soils of the economy estimated by comparing actual figures with reference, as well as sanitary standards.  The results of the evaluation of agricultural land of Cherkasy region for compliance with organic production have shown that soil 16 districts were characterised by certain levels of pollution from heavy metals, radionuclides and residual amounts of pesticides. Introduction of organic agricultural production in these areas is possible only after a detailed study of the territory of the location of a particular economy.
In soils of agricultural lands of the Cherkasy, Smila and Kaniv areas observed exceeding norms  Cd (˃ 3 mg/kg); Mankìvskogo, Uman, Smila, and Chyhyryn and Zolotonosha areas- Cu (˃ 100 mg/kg). High content of Pb observed in soils of Zvenigorod (19.3 mg/kg), Drabìvskogo (19.1 mg/kg) and Lisianski Island (18.8 mg/kg) districts; high content of Zn in soils Seminar (16.2 mg/kg), Uman (16.0 mg/kg), Cherkassy (14.9 mg/kg).  Agricultural soils of Uman district was characterized by a high level of pollution, residual amounts of DDT and its metabolites (observed pwhen above the maximum allowable concentrations). As a result of the Chernobyl affected farmlands of 12 districts of the Cherkasy regions: Horodysche, Zhashkiv, Zvenyhorodka, Kaniv, Korsun-Shevchenkivskyi, Katerynopil, Lysianka Mankivka,, Talne, Uman, Cherkasy and Shpola.  The results of the studies was carried out a comprehensive assessment of soil agricultural land of Cherkasy region and their suitability for organic production  To identify possible contamination of soil farmland FG af «Basis» was analyzed materials solid agrochemical certification for radionuclide’s, heavy metals and residual amounts of pesticides. The results of the assessment carried out showed that the density of soil pollution Cz-137 (< 1Ki/km2) and Sr-90 (< 0.02 Ki/km2), all fields of the economy fell to category "web". The content of heavy metals did not exceed the level of EXPOSURE, namely Cd < 0.7 mg/kg, Pb < 20 mg/kg of soil. The contents of residual amounts of DDT and its metabolites  did not exceed the level of 0.1 mg/kg soil, characterizing them as "suitable" for organic production.  Evaluation of the level of fertility carried out according to the following groups of indicators: agrofusic (density of the soil moisture reserves of productivity); agrochemical ( pH,  content of humus, the available forms of nitrogen, moving forms of phosphorus, exchange forms of potassium content of moving forms of B, Mn, S, Cu, Zn); pollution (heavy metals content in the form of moving- Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg and pesticide residues;-DDT and its metabolites,  radioactive contamination- Cz-137, Sr90).
         To assess the soil for complex traits has been developed that is based on the setting of the integral index of fertility. It was used the method of expert estimations and built a number of priority on individual indicators on the overall level of soil fertility: hummus > p2o5 > k2o > Ph. Definitely weighing the contribution of each indicator within 100 points of estimated scale: hummus is 45 points, Ph-10, p2o5 -25, k2o – 20 points. A certain number of points (the amount is 100) accepted as a reference that corresponds to the optimum condition of soils  Grouping of soils for fitness for the organic production of agricultural products carried out in the following way: I group – deviation from optimum < 10% comply with organic production; II group – from 10 to 25% require the elaboration of measures to achieve the optimal condition; III group – deviation of > 25%-not recommended for organic production without far-reaching changes in indicators of fertility.              Analysis of soil FG af «Basis» showed that on an area of 634 hectares was the average content of humus (2.1-3.0%), 1000.7 hectares -high and high (> 3.1%). for the reaction of the soil solution (pHSol) most of the fields of the economy fell into the category of "suitable" with the average indicator of pH > 5.5. A similar situation was characteristic for the Ca + Mg- all fields for this indicator was attributed to the category of "suitable"). However, the availability of soil nitrogen economy does not correspond to the requirements of organic production. Instead, the provision of movable phosphorus and potassium Exchange lands corresponded to the category of "suitable". It was found that almost all of the soils of the economy was characterized by a high level of provision of boron and manganese, and the availability of soil sulfur does not correspond to the standards.  Therefore, a detailed assessment of the economy in terms of pollution by harmful substances and fertility enabled the conclusion of their suitability requirements for organic production also identify measures to increase the level of fertility in the 4-8 fields field crop rotation and the 6 feed field rotation. 
A detailed study of the territory, which is planning a transition to organic production, it is advisable to perform a set of indicators, namely the presence of objects that may affect the farmlands, the level of fertility and contamination of soils.  A detailed study of the territory, which is located in one of these areas, and plans to transition to organic production, carried out a complex of indicators that describe the State of the natural environment, fertility, and contamination soil.  Estimation of agricultural land requirements for organic production at the regional and local levels, the arrangement of the territory will provide the opportunity to make an objective decision on the feasibility of the transition of the agricultural producers to the organic method of production in terms of a specific region.

Ключові слова


organic production, soil fertility, soil pollution

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Посилання


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