Використання нанопрепаратів у вирішенні проблем збереження зелених насаджень урболандшафтів

О. В. Колесніченко, О. Ю. Лещенко, В. І. Кирилюк, С. М. Грисюк, А. Ф. Ліханов, K. P. Wolski, M. Ziemiańska

Анотація


UTILIZATION OF NANOPREPARATIONS IN SOLVING PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION OF URBAN GREEN SPACES

O. V. Kolesnichenko, O. Yu. Leshchenko, V. I. Kyryliuk, S. M. Hrysiuk, A. F. Likhanov, K. P. Wolski, M. Ziemiańska

 

Nowadays preservation and rehabilitation of green spaces is a priority task under conditions of increasing of the technogenic impact of urban environment on inhabitants of the city. According to the data of international organization World Health Organization (WHO) about 60% of the population of the Earth will live in cities by 2030, 2050 - 70%. Greenery of the urban landscapes serves as a social component of recreation spaces of citizens. The quality of life of the inhabitants of cities depends on the presence of green spaces. Timeliness of these studies is necessity to solve the environmental problems of large cities on the one hand and the lack of scientifically well-grounded concept of stabilizing of green spaces under conditions of cost reduction from the other side. In landscape industry preparations of chemical, microbiological and plant origin are used for nutrition and plant protection. Taking into account that the use of pesticides on the territory of green spaces of megacities is limited or prohibited by law the use of nanoparticles is most appropriate.

The purpose of the study is to analyze the market of biopesticides presented in Ukraine, systematization and generalization by the components of preparations authorized for usage and recommendations on their usage in greenery for increasing plant resistance against adverse environmental factors. According to the results of assessment of the positions of the list of the "State Register of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use in Ukraine" (List) it was found that only 3% of the total number of submitted preparations are recommended for use in greenery.

The analysis of "State Register of Pesticides and Agrochemicals Permitted for Use in Ukraine" indicates that about 120 names of biological products are represented on the market of Ukraine which are represented by manufacturers from 20 countries of the world. The results of statistical data show that biopreparations of Ukrainian production occupy the largest share among the existing range - 29% of the authorized in the List. Nearly in two times less than the quantitative ratio is represented by the biopreparations of manufacturers from China and Germany, 4 -  France (5 producers). Producer countries such as Austria, Australia, Belarus, the Netherlands, Poland, the USA, Turkey, Thailand, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the South African Republic represent the least quantity - only 1 position of the List. Monitoring of the available component content in the List indicates that manufacturers offer biopreparations with different active components. According to the List 19 manufacturers of biopreparations are of Ukrainian production. State organization Interdepartmental Science and Technology Center" Agrobiotech "of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine represents the largest number of biopreparations - 8. Approximately 97% of biopreparations from the total represented amount in the List belong to agricultural management and only 3% - greenery.

Taking into account the prolonged influence of nanoparticles and their bioactivity after use of nanoparticles there is an increase in the efficacy of the physiological and biochemical processes, optimization of growth and development of trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants and their resistance to stress factors of the environment. Foliage application of plants by nanoparticles helps to increase resistance to soil-climatic and anthropogenic factors by activating the activity of enzymes of catalase and polyphenol oxidase, the powerful development of the root system, activation of soil microorganisms, winter-resistance by the intensification of biochemical processes.

Established that the sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity of urban spaces, reduction of pesticide load and environmental remediation can be ensure by the effective usage in the greenery of nanoparticles. Complex nanoparticles of Ukrainian production increase the immunity of plants and reduce the level of their damage by pests and diseases, optimize the microbiological composition of the soil and therefore the development of theoretical and technological aspects of the usage of nanoparticles in order to increase the immunity of plants that grow in conditions of significant anthropogenic loading of urban spaces is promising in the current ecological crisis.

Taking into account that in Kyiv the area of green areas of general use does not exceed 20 square meters per inhabitant and the total level of emissions of pollutants exceeds the maximum permissible concentrations in 1,2-5,7 times the primary task of the present is to preserve the greenery of the capital as an integral part. The use of nanoparticles in the creation and maintenance of green spaces in Kyiv will significantly reduce the cost of public funds for a comprehensive ecological revival of the capital of Ukraine.

Key words: urban spaces, greenery, nanoparticles


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References

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