Видoвий склад ентомокомплексу агрoценoзу люпину

Є. М. Шако, В. П. Федоренко



E. M. Shako, V. P. Fedorenko

One of the problems of agriculture in Ukraine is increasing of vegetable protein production to fulfil balanced fodder livestock with soil fertility preserving. Significant importance for solving this problem belongs to legumes, especially to forage lupine in Polissya and Lisosteppe zone. This crop attracted farmers attention long ago as lightweight to soil and climatic conditions, seed contains 38-52% protein, which is equivalent in quality to soy. Also, lupine is among the most nitrogen-fixing crops, able to absorb heavy phosphorus, potassium and calcium, improving the physical and mechanical properties of soil.However, in modern agrobiocenosis of Ukraine observed changes as a result of global warming, crop rotation violation, tillage minimizing and pesticide load which form favorable conditions for pest’s growth and spreading, so it’s important to clarify the insect’s species composition in lupine agrobiocenosis and their biology, to search effective control measures to reduce pest’s populations density to economic injury level.During years of emtomocomplex researching on lupine was found 40 species which belong to 15 families with six geneses. Analysis of entomofauna trophic structure showed that the proportion of herbivores is 65%, entomophagy’s - 22.5% and neutral species - 12.5%.The research was revealed a direct correlation between the development phases of herbivores and plants. This made it possible to identify the most vulnerable phase of development of the crop, during the laying of productivity elements, phytophagous damage during these phases can seriously reduce yields.Among herbivores exceed 45% of species are in economic injury level and can cause substantial yields losses. During seedling and the first palmate leaf formation phase dominant were weevils from genus Sitona Germ., the average imago number of which was the largest 14.5 ind/m2 or 39.3% of the pests that damage at this stage, sprout flies’ larvae - 9,2 ind/m2 or 24.9%, Scarabaeidae larvae - 5 ind/m2 or 13.6%, respectively. The number of other pests was lower or at economic injury level.Regarding species composition of nodule weevils, the most numerous representative was Charagmus gressorius Fabr. - the maximum number of which, in early May, to coincide with the most vulnerable phase of lupine – seedlings, formation of the first palmate leaves, and was - 16.2 ind/m2, the average number during the growing season was - 12.4 ind/m2.Out of hibernation of nodule weevil in 2016 started at the end of the first and the April second decade with daily mean temperature 5-10 0 C, the sum of effective temperatures thus was amounted to 40-50 0 C, but at the beginning of the third decade there was a significant reduction of daily mean temperature to 3-7 0 C and rainfall, which caused a delay in recovery. At the end of the April third decade - beginning of the May first decade there was a significant increase of daily mean temperature to 12-130C, which caused a mass of beetle’s exodus from their wintering places and their settlement at annual lupine young plants, which were in a critical phase - seedlings - first palmate leaf SET thus was 90C.The absence of large Charagmus gressorius Fabr. at Ahrostantsiya fields can be explained by the fact that the crop wasn’t seed there for a long time, and this of weevil is olihophag; that caused his migration to places with wild lupine and lupine growing in constant rotation.At the end of the May third decade to the beginning of the June first decade, SET was 139 0 in phase of lupine branching, began to appear and the first larvae damage by nodule weevils. Heavy rains at the end of May third decade led to the soil softening and positive effect on larvae, which were easier to get to lupine root systems. They affected nodules on the roots and skeletonize their content, made oblong grooves on the main and lateral roots. The average number of larvae during the growing season was 58.6 ind/m2, resulting in lupine root system damaged by Petrukha scale, with a score of 3 (tap and lateral roots are eaten away by larvae with the small holes, oblong and spiral grooves warmed inside taproot). It should be noted that plants were no longer nitrogen-fixing, and on the root system as a result of injuries began developing bacterial and fungal diseases.During budding and flowering lupine were observed settling of bean and alfalfa aphid individual colonies, which SET was 196 0 C and 262 0 C respectively. Most numerous pests in this phase was Tychius quiqucpunctatus - 36 ind/m2. Also, it was noted of silver Y larvae - 1,6 ind/m2.In the phase of beans formation – was found sloe bug - 6 ind/m2, and rare individuals of Etiella zinckenella - 0,4 ind/m2, while SET was 196 0C.Among entomophages were observed species from the following families: Coccinelidae, Carabidae, Cicindelidae, Staphylinidae, and others.

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