Ефективність мікробних препаратів в технології вирощування помідора

О. В. Куц

Анотація


EFFICIENCY OF MICROBIAL PREPARATIONS IN TECHNOLOGY
OF TOMATO GROWING

O.V. Kuts

 

The use of microbial preparations to optimize the nutrition of agricultural plants are an important element of growing technologies (especially technologies of organic farming). It is noted that nitrogen-fixing microorganisms annually absorb 40-300 kg / ha of nitrogen from the air, which does not contribute to environmental pollution and does not require significant energy costs of production.

Microbial preparations of phosphormobilizing bacteria contribute the transformation of difficult soluble soil phosphates into more readily soluble and more accessible form to plants. The results of many scientific researches show that the application of bacterial fertilizers under vegetables, legumes, grains and technical crops helps to improve the mineral nutrition of plants, increase yields and obtain high-quality products at a rational cost of mineral fertilizers, improve the ecological condition  of soils and increase their fertility.

The aim of research was to establish the efficiency of using microbial preparations and  bioorganic fertilizer in the system of tomato optimization in condition of left-bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine.

The research were conducted in the laboratory of agrochemical research and quality of production in the Institute of Vegetables and Melon growing of NAAS in the typical black soil low-humus during 2013-2015 years.

It has been found that the use of microbial preparations improved the nutrient regime of the soil. In the initial stages of development of tomato plants nitrate nitrogen content in soil significantly increased with the use of microbial preparations ABT, Biohran and Azotofit (91,8-101,2 mg / kg of dry soil under control – 81,3 mg/kg of dry soil). In the phase of flowering high content of nitrate nitrogen in the soil provides the use of ABT and Azotofit (73,7 and 75,2 mg/kg of dry soil). In other variants of use microbial preparations, the content of nitrate nitrogen was 65,5-68,9 mg/kg, which was at the control level (63,9 mg/kg of dry soil). It was also found that in the flowering phase the use of microbial preparations ABT, Phosphogumin and Biogran there is a positive tendency to increase the content of mobile phosphorus in the soil (186-191 mg/kg of soil). The use of microbial preparations Phosphogumin and Biogran increased the growth of mobile phosphorus contents in the soil in the phase of mass fodder of tomato to 174-176 mg/kg, at the control variant 145 mg/kg of dry soil. In exchange potassium contents in soil microbial preparations made not significantly affected.

It has been established that the use of microbial preparations affects to microbiological activity of the soil. With the use of Baktopaslon and Phosphogumin, the reduction of fungi in the rhizosphere soil in the initial periods of the development of tomato plants was reduced (16,5-19,6 thousand g / g of dry soil). While the use of ABT and Azotofit caused the growth of this indicator (24,7-25,4 thousand / g dry soil).

Thus, in the control, the nitrogen fixing microorganisms contained 4,23 million/g of dry soil in the soil, and 6,85-7,45 million/g of dry soil with the use of the indicated preparations. In the flowering phase, the control contained 5,12 million grams of dry soil of nitrogen fixing microorganisms, with the use of microbial preparations – 6,22-7,88 million/g of dry soil.

It was also found that the use of ABT, Biogran and Azotofit increased the coefficient of mineralization in the seedlings pruning phase (0,74-0,79), and for the introduction of ABT and Baktopaslon in the flowering phase (0,70-0,77).

In the phase of incubation of seedlings for the use of microbial preparations containing nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, the potential activity of nitrogen fixation (22,08-26,5 C2H2/g of dry soil per hour) increases with the value of this indicator

on the control 18,16 C2H2/g of dry soil per hour. This trend continues in the phase of flowering: the use of microbial preparations ABT, Baktopaslon, Biogran, Azotofit and potential activity of nitrogen fixation 17,25-18,25 C2H2/g of dry soil per hour (under control – 14,56 C2H2/g dry per hour.

It is noted that the highest level of productivity provides the use of the ABT, the use of which allows to increase the total yield to 22,8%, but with the lowest fruit marketability – 79,2%. It is also, high yields of tomato provide the use of microbial preparations Azotofit and Biogran (19,0 and 18,3% respectively). According to the variants, the total yield of tomatoes was 31,4-31,7 t/ha, with the value of this indicator at the control of 26,8 t/ha.

The use of biohazard fertilizer Phosphogumin shows the largest output of commodity products (86,4%)/

Under the influence of microbial preparations, the biochemical composition of tomatoes also changed. The use of Biogran has a tendency to increase the content of dry soluble matter in fruits (6,2%), while the content of dry soluble substance significantly decreases accordingly to control (5,9%) and amounts to 5,1% for Azotophit.

The content of total sugar in tomato fruit decreased significantly with the use of Phosphogumin and Azotofit; according to the variants, the sugar content was 2,79-2,87% (3,56% on the control). According to other variants of using  microbial preparations, the content of total sugars did not change significantly.

For the introduction of ABT, Baktopaslon and Azotofit in tomato fruits, the content of ascorbic acid is reduced to 16,7-18,0 mg/100 g accordingly to control 20,0 mg/100 g for this indicator.


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References

Kots, S.Ya. Patyka, V.P. Biological fixation of nitrogen and its importance in plant nutrition [Biologyshna fixacia azotu ta ii znashenij u givleni roslin]. Plant physiology: problems and prospects of development. Kiev: Logos, 1, 344-386.

Kots, S.Ya, Malichenko, S.M., Krygova, O.D. Physiological and biochemical peculiarities of plant nutrition by biological nitrogen [Fiziologo-biochimishni osoblivosti givlenij roslin azotom]. Kiev: Logos, 271.

Mishystin E.N. ed. Mineral and biological nitrogen in agriculture of the USSR [Mineralniy i biologishniy azot v zemledeliy SSSR]. Moscow: Nauka, 270.

Patyka, V.P., Volkogon, V.V., Nadkernichna, O.V. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow [Biologishna azotfixacia: vshera, sogodni, zavtra]. Plant physiology in Ukraine at the turn of the millennium. Kiev, 1, 212-226.

Patyka, V.P., Omelyanets, T.G., Grintk, I.V., Petrychenko V.F. Ecology of microorganisms: manual [Ecologia microorganizmiv: posibnik]. Kiev: Osnova, 192.


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