HISTORICAL AND STYLISTIC GENESIS OF LUTSK’S GREENERY PLANTING



M. O. Shepelyuk

Анотація


Formation landscaping of Lutsk has quite a long history, because of the geographical location of Volyn. It played an important role in the formation of greening of the city, including its proximity to Western Europe and a prime location at the crossroads of transport routes and cultural ties with Slavic and Western cultures.

Natural, geographical and aesthetic features of Volyn not only allowed, but also contributed to the process of creating outstanding examples of landscape architecture in Lutsk. In its development it’s traced the region inclusion  into the European, philosophical and formative context of landscape laid, which incorporates the concept of a leading English philosophy of worship wildlife, share with a person; harmony of “the nature”, procedure, feasibility, preservation of any natural landscape. This serves as the foundation for the future prospects of dendroflora.

The formation of Volyn region dendroflora has four main periods, which to some extent reflect the historical and stylistic genesis of landscape construction of Lutsk.

The first period is the largest and covers a significant part of the history of landscape construction lasted from the mid-18th century to 1939. Cells of cultivated dendroflora formed around the manorial estates, palaces and castles of the nobles. It is characterized by a large number of parks for creation of which a well-known European experts were invited, in particular - Irish park builder Dionysius Mikler . Parks of  this period were built mainly in landscape style based on native flora such as tree species genera Carpinus L., Betula Roth., Salih L., Quercus L., Acer L., Tilia L., Ulmus L., Pinus L., Picea L., Fraxinus L. Along with the aboriginal species in culture implemented introduced trees and shrubs families Fagus L., Aesculus L., Platanus L., Ropulus L., Robinia L., Thuja L., Larix Mill., Picea L. , Syringa L., Philadelphus L.

The second period covers 1939-1950 years. It is characterized by the degradation of parks, caused by acts of war, destruction, loss of the homes, lack of care, post-war difficulties, attitude to the parks as elements of bourgeois past. For a brief period spontaneously many trees and bushes were completely destroyed, scratch assortment of flowers.

Third period: 1950-1990’s. There is the rise in the creation of centers of cultivated dendroflora: planting settlements are carried, introduced species are widely implemented in forestry and green economy. In many cities and towns recreational parks, arboreta were created. The botanical garden of Lutsk Pedagogical Institute was laid (Volyn State University now).

Fourth period: 1991-1999 years. The crisis led to a reduction of administrative and commercial authorities’ attention to the preservation of existing cells cultivated dendroflora, dramatically reduced green building, stopped the creation of new parks and arboretums.

Since the end of 20th century there is increasing interest in gardening of Lutsk. This is period of expansion in the creation of cells as cultivated and native dendroflora. Significantly increased demand for fruit and decorative plants among the population, scale of spontaneous introduction is increased due to planting of their own gardens. New parks are laid, their functionality is changed, set specific care for plants.

The current dendroflora state associated with the liberalization of the economy, its inherent accelerated process of introduction of new highly decorative species and cultivars woody plants. Area of urban spaces is more than 160 hectares and recreational areas - 150 ha. But it is worth noting that the greenery of the city under severe human impacts displayed on their external condition.

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