ДО ПРОБЛЕМ ЗБЕРЕЖЕННЯ ВІКОВХ ТОПОЛЬ



Іщук Л.П.

Анотація


ON THE ISSUE OF SECULAR POPLARS PRESERVATION

Ishchuk L.P.

Bila Tserkva national agrarian university

Secular trees have historical, aesthetic, symbolic and biological value in landscape gardening construction, they have always been always an adornment of any landscape and therefore the trees need special attention and preservation.

Secular trees preserved in landscape parks of ХVІІІ-ХІХ centuries and historical places of cities and towns occupy their special place in verdure.  These parks were created on the basis of the best natural plantings with exotic species using. Protection and preservation of the trees provides their certain protective status, lake that of memorial tree, historical tree, nature monument and so on.

Trees species that have reached their limit age are considered to be secular trees. Oaks, strawberry trees, pistachio trees, fir, yew, olive trees, linden trees and nut trees aged over 1000 years are of the greatest value. However, not all the species have such a long age limit. Fast-growing poplars with their superficial root system live up to 100 years on average, and some individual samples live till 150-200 years, and their trunk diameter reaches 5.00-6.00 m. Therefore, poplars preservation requires special attention due to their large size and low limit age. Our analysis of the literature have resulted in founding out that only four poplar tree are listed in the registry of old trees, and all of them belong to indigenous species. More than ten poplars in different parts ofUkrainerequire listing in the registry.

The purpose of the research was to analyze the protection condition of old poplars in Ukraine, to assess their viability and to suggest the ways to preserve and restore them. The objects of the study were secular trees of the species of the Populus genus and landscape design of "Alexandria" arboretum of NAS of Ukraine established with their participation.

Poplar species growing has deep roots and a thousand years history. InUkraine, they were first cultivated in monastery woods and pharmaceutical gardens. Then the species cultivation was continued in adjoining parks, universities botanical gardens and arboretum parks.

We found four poplar trees under protection at the "Alexandria" arboretum of NAS of Ukraine. These are unique 100-150-year-old trees growing in the Ros’ river floodplain.

A P. nigra L. tree was inspected in the area 29 in 2015 (the height is 33 meters and a trunk girth is 7.1 m). The tree has been submitted to the local registry of natural monuments and fenced with a decorative fence since it grows on ecological path route. The tree is in a satisfactory condition and has dry branches in the middle part of the crown. We have found nearby in the same area two P. х canescens (Ait.) Smith. trees aged about 120 years with the height of 30 and 22 meters respectively and a trunk girth of 6.3 m and 4.5 m. One of the two trees was affected with two Viscum album L. semiparasite bushes and the another one was half broken and contaminated with tinder (Phellinus igniarius Quel.) fruit bodies. In the next area 30 opposite to the "Ruins" we found another secular P. х canescens tree (height 28 meters and trunk girth 5.7 m), which was affected with Viscum album as well.

However, many secular poplars can not be preserved. And they usually not suffer from unreasonable human activity rather than from natural aging. There occur hollows burning, cutting down old trees for the purpose of building or expanding areas for gardening and horticulture due to a pseudostatement that they are "dangerous." The desire to make a photo on the background of an secular tree, to hug it to draw some energy from, which cause the breaking of roots trampling and branches breaking.  Secular trees require treatment and intensive cultivation practices.

Secular trees in streets plantings undergo damage from electric power net workers who crown them mindlessly and often leave only a bole while in the civilized Europe secular trees are passed round while laying roads and power lines. The reason for this negligence is also the lack of inventory of vegetation and its monetary value. Hence, it is impossible to deliver a bill to compensate the damages.

But sometimes due to some objective and subjective reasons a tree can not be saved. The experience in secular trees restoration can be demonstrated by the "Sofiyivka" National arboretum of NAS of Ukraine, where there are three artificially grown P. alba trees in the Cretan labyrinth area grew. The trees are popularly called the "family tree" and are associated with the park founder family of Pototskiy. Unfortunately, the tree died. Next to the place a group of P. alba L. trees was planted and the trees were grown artificially by ablactation. These are still young trees that bear little resemblance to their previous giants, but with the lapse of the time the composition will increase in size.

Secular trees preservation is provided considerably by giving them the protection status that requires systematic monitoring, additional care, fencing and protection plates. In particular, preserved trees should undergo intensive agrotechnical care, which comprises systematic sanitary pruning, intensive irrigation and washing crowns in dry periods, the loosening trunks areas, fertilizing, treatment with modern materials and technologies and so on.

Cultural and educational work should also be organized to identify and preserve secular trees, especially among young people in schools and in public organizations, to cover the issue wider in the media.

Thus, today only four poplar trees have the protected status, the rest require additional examining and protection. All poplar trees with a protection status should be subject to constant monitoring and intensive cultivating practices. The lost poplar trees are to be restored through studying archival materials on their growth places. To identify new samples of unique secular poplars, including introduced ones, it is necessary to conduct an inventory of spaces in old manor parks and historic parts of cities and towns. It is advisable to involve wider educational institutions, community organizations and promote trees protection in the mass media.

Key words: Populus, security, registry, park, natural monument


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Посилання


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