ТАКСОНОМІЧНЙ ТА БІОМОРФОЛОГІЧНЙ АНАЛІЗ ДЕНДРОСОЗОФЛОР БОТАНІЧНХ САДІВ ЕКВАДОРУ ТА СТЕПУ УКРАЇН



Є. І. Берегута

Анотація


TAXONOMIC AND BIOMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF RARE EXOTIC
ARBOREAL FLORA IN BOTANICAL GARDENS OF ECUADOR AND OF
UKRAINIAN STEPPE
Ye. Berehuta

The rare exotic arboreal flora of botanical gardens ex situ of the Ukrainian Steppe contains 158 species. The majority of these species (99) belong to the Pinopsida class. 62.66% of the total species composition are rare exotic arboreal flora on botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe. The Magnoliopsida class covers 36.71% of the studied species (58 species), but it has a larger number of genus (37) and families (24) that make up respectively 63.79% and 85.71% of the total studied species.

The Pinacea family is the most numerous and contains 66 species (41.77% of the total). The Cupressaceae family is the second largest family and has 31 species (25.95%), the Rosaceae family has the third place (22 species or 13.92% of the total). Together these families make up 75.31% of the species composition of rare exotic arboreal flora on botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe. The Fagaceae and the Leguminosae families have four species each one. The Juglandaceae family has three species.

The rare exotic arboreal flora of botanical gardens ex situ of Ecuador is represented by 65 species of five classes. The Magnoliopsida class includes 37 species, which is 56.92% of the total rare arboreal exotic species. The Pinopsyda is the second-largest class and consists in 14 species or 21.55 % of the total. The two classes are taxonomically poor, these are Cycadopsida (4 species or 6.15 %) and Ginkgoopsida (1 species or 1.54 %). Also the Magnoliopsida has the largest number of genus (26) and families (18). This represents 57.78% and 69.23% according to the total number of species.

The Palmae and the Euphorbiaceae families share the first place in quantity among the families. Each of them consists of eight species or 12.31% of the total rare arboreal exotic species. The Leguminosae and the Pinaceae families are following in quantity, each of which has seven species or 10.77%. The Cupressaceae family has six species (9.23%), the Cactaceae has five (7.69%). Together, all these families cover 67.69% of the rare exotic arboreal flora of botanical gardens of Ecuador.

Comparing the taxonomic structures of the rare exotic arboreal floras of botanical gardens ex situ, we have noted several of differences and similarities. Firstly, the Magnoliopsida and Pinopsida classes are the leading by species in both floras of the studied regions. Secondly, the Pinaceae and the Cupressaceae are among the most numerous families in the Steppe of Ukraine and Ecuador. Thirdly, there are several common species for both regions, they are: Cupressus lusitanica Mill.,Cupressus sempervirens L., Ginkgo biloba L., Ficus carica L., Pinus patula Schiede ex Schltdl. & Cham., Pistacia vera L., Platanus orientalis L., Punica granatum L., Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl., Thuja occidentalis L. та Vitis vinifera L.. That is 6.96% of the composition of species of rare exotic arboreal flora of botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe and 16.92% of the studied rare exotic arboreal flora of botanical gardens of Ecuador. Only 11 families are common for the rare exotic arboreal floras in both regions. That are 39.29% of the studied flora of the Botanical Gardens of Steppe of Ukraine and 42.31% of Ecuador. Also it should be noted that in the list of rare exotic arboreal species of Ecuadorian botanical gardens there are two species which natural range lies in the Steppe zone of Ukraine (Quercus robur L. and Populus nigra L.).

The investigated flora is represented by four types of life forms in the botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe. The trees are the most numerous type and represented by 139 species (89,24%). Shrubs are the second largest group and have 18 species (11,39%). The majority belong to the Magnoliopsida class (12 species, 7.59%). These are the following species: Amygdalus ledebouriana Schlecht., Sibiraea altaensis (Laxm.) Schneid, Euonymus koopmannii Lauche. and other. The group of woody vines includes only one deciduous species – Vitis vinifera L (0.63%).

In the rare exotic arboreal flora of Ecuadorian botanical gardens were discovered seven classes of life forms. They belong to three types and one department (tree plants). The prevailing type is trees that comprise 48 species (73,85% of the total species) and includes three classes: crown-forming – 36 species (75,00% of the total number of trees). Rosette trees are represented by ten species (20,84% of the total number of trees) and succulent-stem leafless trees - three species (4,76%).

The type of shrubs includes 18 species. They belong to the three classes, which is 27.69% of the total species: crown-forming have seven species, succulent-stem leafless have six species and rosette have five species. All investigated shrubs are evergreen plants. The type of woody vines includes only two species, which make up 3,08% of the total species, one of which is deciduous (Vitis vinifera L.), and the other is evergreen (Pereskia aculeata Mill.). Both of these species belong to the Magnoliopsida class.

By comparing the biomorphological structures of the rare exotic arboreal flora of the studied regions, it can be seen that the percentage distribution by type of biomorph is similar in both regions. The prevailing biomorph type are trees, but in the botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe they cover a larger proportion than in Ecuador's botanical gardens (89,24% and 73,85% respectively). Shrubs are the second largest biomorph type in both regions, but they are represented in botanical gardens of Ecuador more than in the botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe (27.69% and 11.39% respectively). Wood vines in the botanical gardens of Ecuador are represented by a greater share than in the botanical gardens of the Ukrainian Steppe (3.08% and 0.63% respectively).


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