ДОСВІД СТВОРЕННЯ ЛІСОВХ КУЛЬТУР НА КАМ’ЯНСТХ ГРУНТАХ



А. В. Кроль

Анотація


EXPERIENCE OF CREATION OF FOREST CULTURES ON THE SINGLE STONE

A. Krol

From ancient times to the present day it is difficult to find a vegetation group, which is more important for people than forests. In global terms, forest vegetation has the most positive effect on climate formation and hydrological resources of the environment, protects rivers and reservoirs from pollination, prevents the appearance of black hurricanes, is a forage base for bees, a habitat for wildlife and birds. Forest plantations provide a variety of branches of the national economy. In the forest, medicinal herbs, fruits, berries, edible mushrooms are harvested. Forest is a place of rest of the population.

The purpose of the study is to establish, based on the analysis of existing literary sources, a state of study of the influence of rocky rocks on the growth and development of forest plantations. According to a number of authors, the geological structure of the territory of Ukraine was formed over a long period, the consequence of which in the geo-structural aspect was the Ukrainian shield. The latter extends across the entire territory of Ukraine from the northwest from the line of Klesov (Rivne oblast), Ovruch (Zhytomyr oblast), to the southeast almost to the Azov Sea. The length of the shield is more than 1000 km, the largest width is 250 km, and the area is about 180 thousand km2. Within the shield, the Precambrian crystalline rocks in the northeast (Zhytomyr and Rivne regions) overlook the daily surface or lie directly under a small thickness of anthropogenic deposits. In the modern section, the shields are different in age and structure of its elements: in some places, anticholinergy (Novograd-Volynsky, Nikopolsky) acts in others - synclinaria (Ovrutsky, Ingulsky), in the third - plutons (Korostyshevsky, Korsun-Novgorod regions).

A significant part of the forests of Zhytomyr Polissya is located on soils formed on rocky deposits that extend out to the surface of the day or lie at a slight depth from the surface of the day. Such soils are found in other forestry farms in Ukraine

Today it is difficult to find work of scientists, which are devoted to the research of forest plantations on soils with rocky rocks on the territory of Zhitomir region. Most studies are confined to the mountains. Part of the Carpathian forests is located on powerful fertile brown forest soils and characterized by high productivity. These forests are typologically in terms of formation mainly on rich ground conditions. The second part of the forest grows on shallow, strongly stony soils, but they are characterized by high productivity in the conditions of a humid and relatively warm climate. The second part of the forest grows on shallow, strongly stony soils, but they are characterized by high productivity in the conditions of a humid and relatively warm climate. Depending on the size of the stones, the thickness of the rocky layer and the nature of the grass cover P. Pasternak have identified five categories of forest-cultivated areas. The first category includes sites where 70% is covered with stones of medium and large size. In the second category, the areas are entirely covered with small and medium-sized stones to a depth of 25 cm. Below is a layer of fine earth, which is full of stones. Lots of the third category are covered with stones of an average size to a depth of 50 cm, below lies the continuous horizon of fine earth with stones. Up to the fourth category include areas up to 80 cm and deeper covered with medium and small stones. Until the fifth category, the sites are entirely covered with large stones. The first experiments on the afforestation of rocky placers were laid in 1955 in the square 117 Maksimets-Gloditsky forestry of Nadvirna forestry complex. When felled areas of the first and second categories in the composition of crops should choose oak mountain, fir, larch, fir, pine, in areas of the third and fourth categories - pine, birch. According to these researchers, the trees are called, they exhibit high biological stability and intense growth in height. According to N.O. Oleksiychenko in natural plantings of seed origin on mountain-meadow gravel-stony soils of the mountain slopes of Crimea, the pike of the lohalist develops roots in the cracks in the stone rock, in some places it overlooks the great depths and, bending, is squeezed in a layer of gravel and even distributes in the direction of the earth's surface. Soils with close occurrence of rocky rocks or with the release of the latter on the surface of the surface affect the structure of the root system of plants and especially the trees. In mountainous conditions, on brown Carpathian soils, under the influence of rocky soils, the roots of tree plants penetrate into deep layers of soil through cracks. On rocky trees in the beech forest, for example, which is characterized by a more superficial root system, a rod root, having a favorable slit in rock slabs, has penetrated at the age of six up to three-meter depths in comparison to the walnut. Most travelers and naturalists who have been in the mountains of the Crimea came to the conclusion that there were thickets of forests on the apical plateau. However, by the end of the seventeenth century, under conditions of active human intervention, forest plantations in the yayla were cut down and overgrown with herbaceous vegetation. The researchers of the mountain plateau of the peninsula found that in conditions of high summer temperatures, strong winds and storm rains, woody vegetation is capable of consolidating and preserving the gravel (strongly deformed) upper layer of the slopes of the Crimean mountains. During 30 years (from 1957 to 1987), during the large-scale use of rocky soils, 305 thousand hectares of protective plantations were created, which is 10% of the total area of the Crimean mountain slopes. During these years, more than 50 species of trees and shrubs have been used in the yaylin experimental and productive plantings. Protective plantings were first created in areas where machinery can be used. In this category were classified slopes up to 10º. Such sites were freed from large stones and conducted a solid preparation of the soil or strip. On the slopes more than 10 ° a steepness was made by morse terraces in width of 3,7-4,2 m. The combination on shoals of protective shrubs with overgrown herbaceous vegetation, has positively influenced the detention and conservation of solid precipitation. In general, the snow has increased from 6-10 to 50-70 cm, and in some areas up to 1.5-2.5 m. The concentration of such a mass of snow in protective plantations extended the period of its (snow) melting for 2-3 weeks. In general, protective shrubs on the slopes of the Crimean mountains increase up to 900-3200 m3 of water per hectare per year. It is 4-8 times more than it can withstand the moisture of herbaceous vegetation.
E. Kalinin notes that sealing soils can become an obstacle to the growth of core and anchor roots. If such a horizon has the corresponding monolithic and density, then the root root stops its growth in length, or changes the vertical direction to the horizontal. If the dense horizon contains cracks, cracks, and moves of the old roots, then these architectonic formations also penetrate the core or anchor roots and continue their growth and development into deeper layers of the soil. Therefore, under the influence of the soil architectonics, root systems of woody species may acquire features that are not specific to them.

Specific traces should also include the earths with the outcrops of rocky Precambrian rocks on the surface of the soil or with their close occurrence (rocky soils).
      A considerable part of the forests of  Zhitomir Polissya is located on soils formed on rocky deposits that extend out to the surface of the day or lie at a slight depth from the surface of the day. Such soils are found in other forestry farms in Ukraine.

Since the literature has a very poor coverage of the typical pine planting that grows on the rocky soils of Polissya, there was a need to generalize the experience of creating forest crops on other substrates with unsuitable conditions for the growth and development of woody plants. These substrates include waste heaps, which are formed as a result of the extraction of coal. Coal mining in the Donbass is underground with the distillation of coal-related coal rocks in the dump cone, which are called trenches. The climatic conditions of the Donetsk steppe, unfavorable for forest expansion, deteriorate on the heaps due to their elevation over the surrounding area, different exposure and slope steepness. According to the classification of rocks, by their degree of suitability for agricultural and forestry plants, waste heaps, according to their water and physical and chemical properties, are of little use or require further improvement.

Though the area of such lands is quite significant, and these are tens of thousands of hectares within the boundaries of the Ukrainian crystalline shield, yet there is still no established dogma practice regarding the creation of the most productive and biologically stable crops of pine common on rocky soils. We only have the fact that woody plants are trying to adapt to such extreme conditions of life.


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