Вікові дерева Краснокутського парку (ХАРКІВСЬКА ОБЛ.): стан, проблеми збереження та відновлення

А. Григоренко, Ю. Клименко

Анотація


Age old trees are one of the most important parts of old parks. It’s their presence what allows visitors to feel a connection to the past. For biologists they allow to find out about different tree species’ lifespan (among which are intoducents) in certain conditions and about biometric numbers they can reach. Park builders with their help define park plantations initial structures. For that reason each age old tree in an old park has a big value.

In Kharkiv Oblast there is a Krasnokutsky park memorial of park gardening art of the national value (former Osnovyansky acclimatizationgardenofKarazins). It has been founded by Ivan Nazarovitch Karazin (1780-1856) in 1809 on13,6 haarea. In1833 inthat garden there were  202 species and cultivars of wooden plants. Later I.N. Karazin’s business has been continued by his son, Ivan Ivanovitch Karazin (1834-1903). In 1899 the amount of species and cultivars reached 540. During XX-beginning of XXI century the park suffered decline, also some renovation works were conducted.

In 2016 species and cultivar compositions of the park were specified by en-rout inspections, locations of age old trees were noted on a plan, trunk diameters were measured. The result of the work is a plan with locations of the biggest age old trees and with information on their taxonomical composition and biometrical indexes. Age old trees of the following species and cultivars were found: Abies alba Mill., A. concolor (Gordon) Lindl. ex Hildebr., Ginkgo biloba L., Juniperus virginiana L., Larix decidua Mill., Picea abies (L.) Karst., Pinus nigra Arn., P. sylvestris L., Thuja occidentalis L, T. plicata Donn ex D. Don, Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., A. saccharinum, Cornus mas L., Corylus colurna L., Fagus sylvatica ′Laciniata′, Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus alba L., Prunus padus L., Quercus robur L, Q. rubra L., Tilia cordata Mill., Ulmus  glabra Huds. Trunk diameters of the biggest Abies alba reached 80 cm,  Juniperus virginiana – 54 cm, Picea abies – 84 cm, Populus alba – 140 and 149 cm, Quercus robur – 136 and145 cm etc. Analysis of species lists and park descriptions from different years shows that a lot of age old plants of big sizes already got eliminated.

Dry branches of oak trees should be removed. Within projections of their crowns there should be no younger trees that would overshadow lower branches, which can lead to their death. In Krasnokutsky park there basically are no young oaks. In order for that species to stay a park-forming one, areas have to be cleared up and planted with common oak. This recommendation applies to a significant number of species and cultivars, age old trees included; it also applies to the renovation of species, which age old trees in the past were presented in the park (Abies nordmanniana, Pinus strobus, Tilia americana, Carya alba, Picea omorica, Populus deltoides). By 2016 renovation plantings were only performed for Pinus sibirica, Abies alba and A. Concolor.

On the park territory besides several age old trees, there are also a lot of middle aged Fraxinus excelsior trees. In time some of those can also become commemorative trees. Yet for them to have an attractive habitus, they need space. In other words, areas around trees chosen for this reason should be cleared up.

Previously in the park there were a lot of Picea abies trees, age old included. Those plants were weakened by droughts only to face an attack of European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2012, so the majority of the trees withered. Only one group of age old trees remained on the Eastern dam of the bottom pound. Besides Picea abies due to droughts a lot of Thuja occidentalis that were planted in rows also died.

Only two trees of Fagus sylvatica ′Laciniata′ remained in the park. In order to renew plantations of Picea abies, Thuja occidentalis, Fagus sylvatica ′Laciniata′ either watering on the areas where they are planned to be planted should be organized, either they should be planted closed to a bottom of a gulch, a lake or a creek.

Right now each and every kind of tree cutting on nature reserve found territories is forbidden by the low, which inflicts much harm to Krasnokutsky park’s upkeep, same as to the upkeep of other parks.


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Кібкало В. О. Інтродукція рослин у Краснокутському дендропарку / В. О. Кібкало // Інтродукція деревних та чагарникових рослин в Україні. Тези доповідей засідання ради ботанічних садів України, присвяченого 200-річчю Краснокутського дендропарку (колишнього Основ’янського саду Каразіних). – Краснокутськ, 1993. – С. 81–103.

Липа О. Л. Визначні парки України та їх охорона / О. Л. Липа. – К. : Вид-во Київ. ун-ту, 1960. – 176 с.


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