Повышение эффективности модульных солнечных фотоэлектрических установок


Анотація


 

Increase of Efficiency of the modular Solar photovoltaic installations.

 

Sh. I. Klychev, S. A.Bahramov, Z. I. Klychev, V. V.Kharchenko

 

In recent years, renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy, are playing an increasingly important role in the world energy balance and in the formation of new directions for the development of world energy. Work is underway to study the functioning of solar power plants operating in parallel with the network.

The newly created solar stations are based primarily on flat solar photovoltaic panels. At the same time, work is underway to create new photovoltaic devices that work with concentrators, as well as studies to find ways to increase the efficiency of modular solar photovoltaic systems with the use of modernized optical systems.

Intensive work is underway to develop solar photovoltaic modules consisting of a microconcentrator (usually a Fresnel lens) and a cascade photocell.

The purpose of the study - the determination of the characteristics of Fresnel lenses from the point of view of these problems, as well as the possibilities of increasing the optical efficiency of concentrators through the use of optical media is the goal of this work.

According to the results of the research of Fresnel lenses, the following practical conclusions are made:

1. The parameter rp / f in the Fresnel lens for most of the belts can be taken as 0.0065, for the outer belts smaller values are needed to reduce the thickness of the tooth.

2. In this LF are possible C> 900 on an area of 2.8x2.8 mm.

3. Fresnel losses on 5 flat ones will make up 18.5%, losses due to LF non-accuracy 14%; The efficiency of the LF, even without taking into account the variance will be no more than 64%.

 In order to increase the concentration in the photovoltaic system, a system including a primary specular paraboloid concentrator and a secondary concentrator representing an optical medium in the form of a hemispherical lens with a center of curvature at the focus of a paraboloid was considered.

It is established that in the concentrator-lens system, in comparison with the paraboloidal concentrator, the flux density increases and, accordingly, the sun image spot size decreases. And these effects take place, both for an exact and inaccurate concentrator.

The analysis shows that these effects in the medium are due to two factors. The first is the optical properties of the lens, which leads to a decrease in the image spot and, second, this increase in the brightness of the radiation in the medium (proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium). Moreover, the fluxes in the original spot and in the reduced spot are the same. A proof of the influence of the second factor is that the optical properties of the lens do not influence the concentration at the focus, i. The increase in density in the focus is due only to one factor - an increase in the brightness of the radiation in the medium. Then both factors act on the spot. The results obtained are of practical importance, since it makes it possible to reduce the size of the photocell.

Thus, in the considered system, when the allowable flux intercepted by a photocell is 95%, the decrease in the area of a photocell due to the use of an optical medium (a liquid lens or lens with an intermediate liquid layer) will be about 1.8 times for an accurate concentrator, and for an inaccurate 1.7 times. At the same time, the average concentration of the receiver increases accordingly.

The above results show that the use of a set of optical techniques can significantly improve the characteristics of solar energy systems and increase their energy efficiency. Their application, along with the further improvement of the design of the elements themselves, can be useful for solving the problem of expanding the use of solar energy systems in practice.


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