The yield of spring rape depending of application in fertilization different forms of nitrogen fertilizers

T. I. Prorochenko

Анотація


Rape is a culture, which has become one of the main oilseeds in the world. With its wavy popularity in Ukraine in recent years, rape importance does not decrease. Development of agronomic measures complex, ensuring high yield of agricultural crops, including spring rape, is necessarily accompanied by a comprehensive economic evaluation. Economic efficiency shows the final useful result from the use of all production resources and is determined by comparing of results and production costs. The main goal of production in market conditions is profit, the difference between income and costs for production and sales of products. The profit directly depends on price, and the last - from the cost price. Analysis of world and European prices shows, that selling price of rapeseed is usually in 2-3 times higher than price of cereals, but the profitability of its cultivation is significantly inferior to the level of profitability of the latter. In the growing technology of spring rape, like other crops as well, sowing is an important technological process, the main factors of which are row spacing and seeding rate of seeds. Theoretical grounds of various areas of plant nutrition in accordance to the methods of sowing are set in the works of Y.V. Khmelyanchyshyn, P.S. Vishnivskyi, A.V. Yunyk, F. M. Kuperman, M.S. Savitskyi, N.N. Ulrih, I.I. Sinyagin and others.
For each variety (hybrid) and under different growth conditions, the optimum seeding rate will be different. Even in one region, results of research are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, for each region and variety (hybrid), a differentiated approach is needed, which will allow to set the optimal row spacing and seeding rates of seeds in order to obtain maximum productivity per unit area. The aim of research was to determine complex influence of seeding rates and row spacing on productivity formation of spring rape plants variety Sirius and hybrid Ozorno in conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, determining of economic efficiency of their cultivation as well. In order to achieve the goals during 2015-2017, we conducted field research in conditions of stationary field crop rotation of the Plant growing Department in PE NULES of Ukraine "Agronomical experimental station" (Vasilkovskyi district, Kiev region, village Pshenychne). Soils - typical (deep) low-humus chernozems, coarse silty light loam by granulometric composition. Studies were conducted with variety Sirius and hybrid Ozorno. Sowing was carried out by seeder Klen and SZ-3,6 with forming a different width between rows: 12.5, 15.0, 25.0 and 30.0 cm with seeding rate of varieties and hybrids 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 millions of germinable seeds per hectare. Accounting area of the site is 25 m². Repetition of the experiment is quadruple. In the course of calculating economic efficiency of the research elements spring rape growing technology, namely the row spacing and the seeding rate of seeds, we studied and summarized all types of expenses, their structure as a percentage, and as result of calculations, direct effect by above factors on economic efficiency of cultivation variety Sirius and hybrid Ozorno. The profit from products sale, after paying all costs for production, depended on amount of production costs and level of crop yield. Profit with cultivation of variety Sirius fluctuated by variants in range from 22920 UAH / ha to 4150 UAH / ha.
The highest levels of profitability of growing rape variety Sirius were got on variants with seeding rate 0.8 mln / ha and with  row spacing 12.5 and 15.0 cm, which was respectively 140 and 124%. Analysis of the economic evaluation results of growing spring rape seeds of hybrid Ozorno allowed the following conclusions to be drawn: the highest yield was obtained from the variant of sowing with row spacing 12.5 cm and seeding rate 0.8 million germ. seeds / ha, which was amounted 3.61 t / ha, what at total production cost 17056 UAH / ha and the cost of gross output 45775 UAH allowed to make a profit at the level 28719 UAH / ha, with level of profitability - 168%. Increase in the seeding rate from 0.8 to 1.0 million germ. seeds / ha increased production costs an average by 585 UAH. As a result of our studies it was established, that on typical low-humus chernozems in conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, the highest profit from growing spring rape of variety Sirius and hybrid Ozorno an average for 2015-2017 was obtained on the variant with row spacing  12.5 cm and seeding rate 0.8 million germ. seeds / ha, which was, respectively, in variety 22920 and in a hybrid 28719 UAH / ha with profitability level 140 and 168%.

Ключові слова


nitrogen, fertilizing, nitrogen fertilizers, mineral nutrition, yield

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Посилання


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