Удосконалення системи екологічного моніторингу сільських територій, що знаходяться у зоні впливу полігонів твердих побутових відходів

Н. А. Макаренко, О. О. Будак



N. A Makarenko, O. O. Budak,


The rural territories (RT) have prominent place in the socio-economic structure of Ukraine. Traditionally, urban environment decides the problem of waste accumulation at the expense of the rural areas what is causing a problem of contamination namely deterioration of soil quality, water, air.

Many scientists dedicated their scientific works to the study of influence of the municipal solid waste landfills on the environment. So, Zaitsev A. A. and Isaev S. V. have created a database for the monitoring of the municipal solid waste landfills with using GIS technology, Kovaleva I. K. has developed the basic principles of the organization of their monitoring. Despite of scientific contribution to the solution of this problem, these studies have not paid sufficient attention to the rural area what is the final link in the placing of the municipal solid waste landfills in the interaction between "urban environments – rural areas".

Paper objective is estimation of the ecological condition of rural areas, which fall under the municipal solid waste landfills influence of by the example of the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka, Kyiv oblast.

Materials and methods in research paper. Research has been conducted on the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka and adjacent rural areas for 2012-2015. Field and laboratory research methods were used for work.

Paper main body. In our previous studies we developed the target system for the monitoring of the municipal solid waste landfills which combines information about the location of waste storage, study of their impact on the natural environment, in particular, on rural areas, and measures to reduce negative impacts and risks. The survey of the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka has showed that seepage water of the municipal solid waste landfills is the main source of negative impact on the natural environment. Due to the lack of collection systems, seepage water accumulates in low parts of the relief on the municipal solid waste landfills that may cause contamination of soil and groundwater.

An examination of residents of Sloboda, what was made with the purpose of investigating opinion about environmental problems of the area and the possible impact of the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka on their vital functions, has showed high level of concern (it was stated by 48% of respondents). The local residents believe that the most acute problems are poor quality of drinking water and the spread of odor due to exploitation of the landfill (76% of respondents).

Sampling analysis of the filtrate has showed a excess over concentrations relative to threshold limit value (TLV) for the following substances: ammonia nitrogen – 187,9 TLV, biochemical oxygen demand – 2605 TLV, suspended substances – 3283 TLV, total iron 136,5 TLV, petroleum products – 1919 TLV, nitrates - 3.7 TLV, solid residuals  – 3,7 TLV, phosphates – 1172 TLV, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) – 602.1 TLV, chlorides - 1.3 TLV.

Monitoring of groundwater in the zone of influence of the municipal solid waste landfills was conducted by sampling from controlling well which was located below the movement of groundwater. It was found, that according to organoleptic properties of water from well did not meet current standards: chroma exceed the threshold limit value  at 13.9 times, turbidity – 6.3, the total iron at 3.1, ammonium – 1,34, nitrates – 1.5, the dry rest - at 1.16, the total stiffness - at 1.23, chlorides – 1.85, oxidability of permanganate - at 2,46 times.

On the basis of the results of the research, the greatest danger is microbiological water pollution, to be exact: the presence in water of E. соlі, enterococcus (which is indicates fecal contamination), exceeding the standards for general microbial number (GMN) (at 7.8 times) and coliforms (at 240 times).

Quality research of drinking water from the wells of local residents revealed the excess of the organoleptic characteristics (chroma and turbidity) and physical-chemical (general iron). A determination of sanitary-indicative bacterium in water has showed a decrease of total microbial number and number of coliforms.

Analysis of the soil of the municipal solid waste landfills in accord with general microbial number (GMN) has showed that it relates to heavily contaminated; in accordance with the content of thermophilic bacteria, the titer of the coliform bacteria and Cl. perfringens is slightly contaminated. Pathogens Shigella, which are pathogens of dysentery, was detected on the municipal solid waste landfills.

The soil of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ) at a distance of 50 m from the municipal solid waste landfills relates to moderately polluted according to the general microbial number (GMN), also it relates to slightly polluted according to the titer of the coliform bacteria and Cl.perfringens. At a distance 200 m from the municipal solid waste landfills soil refers to slightly polluted in accord with general microbial number (GMN).

Conclusions of the research. It is established that the municipal solid waste landfills can be a cause of deterioration of drinking - water quality and sanitary-hygienic state of soils in surrounding rural areas. The results of social survey show high level of concern of the population of the environmental situation that arose in connection with the impact of the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka on the natural environment.

The existing sanitary-hygienic standards in water of wells which are located at distances of 0.7-1.5 km from the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka were exceeded. There is a direct correlation between distance of wells from the municipal solid waste landfills and the concentrations of harmful substances in the water.

A deterioration of sanitary and hygienic state of soil on agricultural land outside the sanitary protection zone of the municipal solid waste landfills in Myronivka was identified.

The research results indicate the necessity of improving the system of monitoring of the municipal solid waste landfills with regard to their impacts on the surrounding rural areas.

Повний текст:




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