Сукупна сезонна динаміка щільності міжвидових природних популяцій біорізноманіття корисних комах-ентомофагів та їх шкідливих комах-господарів злакових попелиць (Homoptera, Aphididae) протягом всієї вегетації пшениці озимої у Лісостепу України

Г. В. Мєлюхіна



G. V. Meluоhina


The aim of the study was to study the peculiarities of the seasonal variation of the total density dynamics of interspecific natural populations of biodiversity of beneficial insect-entomophagous and harmful insect hosts of cereal aphids during the whole wintering of winter wheat in the forest-steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Comparative, analytical, field, statistical and mathematical. Results The results of observations of the dynamics of aggregate density of harmful insect herbivores cereal aphids and their beneficial insect afidofahiv on winter wheat crops. Determined that the highest density of pests in crops of winter wheat was 19 - 110 copies. / 100 bursts of larvae and their entomophagous coccinellide was in the range of 10 to 105 specimens. / 100 bangs Conclusions Based on our own research suggested making timely monitoring of harmful insect herbivores cereal aphids and their beneficial insect afidofahiv to establish EPSH and need chemical protection of winter wheat crops from herbivores. Proposals to make timely route inspection records pest density in two winter wheat growing season: spring, summer and autumn.

Actuality:Galicia(Cecidomyiidae), a family of two-winged insects. Most herbivorous larvae of gallates form Gall (hence the name), within which they live and eat; Others hold loose on the flowers, stems and in the axils of the leaves. Among the larvae there are predators attacking aphids, worms, herbivorous mites and other larvae, as well as endoparasites of aphids and leaf blubber. For a number of species it is characteristic of reproduction at the stage of the larva (pedogenesis).

Syrphidae (Syrphidae) - the most famous larvae, predators destroying aphids, scallops, leaf blubber, small caterpillars. They are of great importance as regulators of the number of plant insect pests.

Horse riders Aphididae (Aphidiidae) is a worldwide widespread family presented exclusively by the endoparasites of aphids. About 600 species of 51 species are known in the world's fauna. Most affidiiids prefer to put eggs in the larvae of cereal aphids II and III, at least IV age. However, some eggs they can put in larvae I age and even adult cereal aphids. If the parasite lays eggs in the larvae of the 1st century, all infected individuals perish. If the parasite lays eggs in the larvae of the second century, then, although most of the cereal aphids die on the larval stage, a small part of them reaches the imaging stage and postpones a small number of eggs. If infected larvae of the third age, then all aphids are capable of reaching the imaging stage and delaying the eggs. Afidhids lay eggs and in the nymph of cereal aphids; As a result, mummies are formed at the stage of winged females, after a flight to a new place. This contributes to the more spread of cereal aphids. The development of a larva of a rider of the I-III age passes in the hemolymph of the host. The larva of the elderly wraps a cocoon and coughs, as a rule, inside the aphid mummy. At high density of parasites often there is a perennial infection of cereal aphids. One such parasite flies out of such ashes; Others are dying in the process of development.

Zlatoglazy (Chrysopidae) - the representatives of the trout netchatokrylyh (Neuroptera). Adult golden ears eat pollen, nectar or paddy, but representatives of the widespread genus Chrysopa are also predators not only in the larval stage, but also in their adult condition, hunting for small insects (cereal aphids, worms or mites). When in danger, or when they are caught, the golden eyelashes produce a very bad smell. Eggs of zelatoglazya they eat aphids, as well as other small insects or their eggs.

Coccine halides (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) are among the most effective entomophages of many pests of agriculture and forestry. The vast majority of species of Coccinellid are predators destroying aphids, leaflets, worms, shields, tryps, spider mites, leafy leafy larvae, and many small arthropods, and are natural regulators of their numbers.

Methods: The research was conducted during 2014-2016 inthe forest-steppe ofUkrainein the conditions of stationary experiments of the Cherkasy State Agricultural Research Station of theNationalScienceCenter"InstituteofAgricultureof the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences ofUkraine" ofCherkassyregion.

In the autumn and spring-summer periods of wheat vegetation, the winter count of the number of interspecific populations of cereal aphids and their entomophages was carried out by mating using an entomological slash with variable bags performed in series of 50 misters followed by a count of 100 bumps in the four replicates.

Results The figures shown in the figure show that the peak of the number of afidophases coincided with the peak of the development of cereal aphids. During the growing season of winter wheat for 2014-2017, the total density of coccinellide (Succinellidae) ranged from 10 to 105 per 100 bumps, Cacidomyiidae - from 15 to 45 per 100 bumps, Syrphidae ) - from 25 to 85 ex. / 100 pests of the nest, black-eyed peacock (Chrizopidae) - from 35 to 120 ex. / 100 bumps, "Aphidiidae" - from 21 to 120 ex. / 100 bites of the donkey, cereal Aphids (Аphididae) - from 19 - 110 ex. / 100 bumps.

From the data shown in the figure, it is evident that during the growing season of winter wheat in percentage terms, the results of route surveys averaged over three years indicate that the dominant species are Chrysopidae (25%), Coccinellids (Coccinellidae) - 25%, Rhodians-Afidiids - 24%, sub-dominant species were Syrphidae - 17%, other species were small: Galicia (Cecidomyiidae) - 9%

Повний текст:




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