To the methodology and philosophy of Forestry



B. Tantsura

Анотація


The philosophy of nature is based on the postulate of ancient scholars that all
processes on the Earth determined by the characteristics of interaction of solar energy with
rocks.
Methodology is a philosophical doctrine, exploring methods of learning. There are
scientific methods of theoretical research, formalization, and axiomatic hypothetical-
deductive methods. In the context of the methodology of Forestry these methods have the
next expressions. At first, formalizing, that display substantial knowledge in a formalized
language. Wood is pervasive unity of forest plants, animals and environmental elements.
Biotic-resistant are natural stands of indigenous forest types. Fulfillment of nature
protection and economic forest functions possible with the introduction of three equal
parts business, protected, default management and plantations. All forestry research
conducted full-scale based on forest typology description. Mapping trees and associations
is perfect and affordable method of research. The basis of all silvicultural research is
geobotany and landscape position. Geobotanical mapping and mapping of trees - a perfect
and affordable methods of research. Forest area is a taxon of typology and the main object
of management. The forest units are needed to enlarge on the typological basis.
Secondary, the axiomatic method is a method of constructing a scientific theory
when taken on its basis the axiom from which all other statements of this theory are
derived logically (proof). Forestry axiom is that the forest is all-pervading unity of forest
biota and the environment. As the forest is one of the essential components of the
ecological balance of individual regions and the entire planet, conservation coherent
structure of forest ecosystems and their biotic resistance is a priority of the state.
Therefore, the formation of non-dusturbanced natural stands should be laid in the
foundation of the Forest Code. Exploitation of forest resources, forest size must be
determined according to the new concept vnormovanoho nature. The main purpose of
forests is to maintain the natural balance of the planet. Compliance with this postulate
processing determines economic and legal foundations of environmental forestry. Wood


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should provide people to clean air, soil and water, reduce the effects of natural disasters,
erosion and adverse climate changes. The shift in forestry on conservation involves the
review of prices for forest products and non-wood resources for get additional allocations
for the protection and improvement of forests.
Therdly, hypothetical-deductive method is a method of theoretical research that
involves the creation of deductive-linked hypotheses, which are derived from the
statements of empirical facts. Hypothesis 1: The state of ecological balance on Earth is
clearly broken, disappearing not only separate living organisms - endangered biomes
goals. Steppe vegetation almost destroyed the remains of steppe grasses can degenerate in
reserves since disappears healthy environment that generates and maintains the flora and
fauna of the steppes. Just degenerate and meadows, and forests. Widespread use of
artificial afforestation, the creation of simplified monocultures for 200 years or more in the
same areas results in depletion of forest soils and reduced index of growth of stands in 1-2
classes. Hypothesis 2. In order to preserve a little disturbed forests in the alpine zone of the
Carpathians and the formation of protected forests in Polesie and forest-steppe, is to
provide in these areas, large tracts of forests (20-100 th. ha), which introduced protected
mode such reserves. They occasionally - 5-10 years - conducted selective cutting of low
intensity, large-sized business of selecting trees. Hypothesis 3. In these protected forests,
which in turn 50-80 years in forests, natural regeneration will be provided major forest
species. Also here, the conditions for accommodation of hunting fauna. Animals and birds
will help the formation of biotic resistant stands of indigenous forest types.
So, Philosophy and Methodology of forestry research and management of forests
are derived from the basic tenet of the philosophy of nature: the ecological balance of
natural areas is ensured by preserving the integrity of natural ecosystems, their quantitative
and qualitative structure inherent to their metabolism and energy. In order to restore the
broken ecological balance in Ukraine need to make 35% of forest reserves.

 Key words: methodology, philosophy of nature, epistemology, forestry, geography, 

forestry theory, the phenomenon of forest, geobotany, reserves.


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