СУЧАСНЙ СТАН ЖВОПЛОТІВ У НАСАДЖЕННЯХ ЗАГАЛЬНОГО КОРСТУВАННЯ М.ХАРКОВА



А.А. Дзиба, А.В. Байковська

Анотація


THE CURRENT STATE OF HEDGES IN PLANTINGS OF GENERAL USE IN KHARKIV

The ecological role of city planting is to effectively improve the microclimate of a certain environment. Plants positively impact the microclimate, vary by their phytoncide  qualities, increase the air moisture content, enrich the air with oxygen, and effectively decrease the  noise and air pollution. Hedges by being an integral part of gardens, parks, and street planting, can execute these and many other functions. Hedges are used to mark the territory boundaries, to separate the individual zones within a certain area, to mask buildings, and to give them more attractive appearance.

In Ukraine, the study of hedges began non-systematically in 2000 in different regions. Namely, hedges in the Kiev region were studied by Dzyba A.A.,             Korinchuk O.O. (village Pshenychne), Dzyba A.A., Sobchenko O.A. (сity Bila Tserkva), Dzyba A.A., Pasyk J.M. (city Pereyasliv-Khmelnytsky); in Chernivtsi region they were studied by Kurnytska M.P., Myronchuk K.V. (city Chernivtsi), and in Zhytomyr region by Dzyba A.A., Nesterchuk O.H. (city Novograd Volynskij). Therefore, it is important  to examine  the current state of various types of hedges, their functional purpose, and the taxonomic composition of woody plants in the hedges  established in other regions, including Kharkiv.

Reconnaissance surveys  were conducted on 40 streets, 7 avenues, 3 plazas and 4 parks and squares in the city of Kharkiv. Hedges were detected on 6 streets (Str. Ayeroflotskiy, Str. Myra, Str. Otakara Yarosha, Str. Plekhanovskiy, Str. Romain Rolana, Str. Holmohirskiy), 3 avenues (Prospekt Lenina, Prospect of Truth and Prospect 50 years anniversary of the USSR), 2 plazas (Liberty, Proletarian area), in three parks and one square (Central park of culture and rest (CPCaR), park of Shevchenko, Kharkov state zoological park, square Kharkov State circus).

The survey of the hedges  reviled that the  single-row hedges comprised of  the deciduous species of woody plants were most common, whereas  the boundary demarcating and living walls types were less common.

The dimensions analysis of the hedges showed that  the most common were the hedges with the width of 0.4–0.6 m. However, other dimensions could be found, like  a single-row molded hedge from Cotoneaster melanocarpus  Med. with a width of 0.7 m. The distance between plants in the row ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 m. The length of hedges depended on the objectives. Hedges of Ligustrum vulgare L., Syringa vulgaris L., Cotoneaster melanocarpus Med., and Rosa rugosa L., that functioned as a divider  measured in length from 10 to 30 m. Hedges with the main purpose to decorate and mask unattractive areas or buildings were somewhat  shorter (5–8 m).  About 50% of surveyed hedges had ornamental purpose, 35% of the hedges served to demarcate the territory, and 15% performed a protective function.

Due to the difficulties of creating the hedges in Kharkiv, the low- and medium-height single-species hedges were most abundant. Only two multi-species hedges, one comprised of Acer negundo L., Sambucus nigra L., and Sambucus racemosa L. and located on the Aeroflotska str., and another one comprised of Ligustrum vulgare L. and Forsythia europae Panch. and located on the Holmyhorska str. were identified.

The condition of different types of hedges depended on location, age, resistance of woody plants to the urban environment, and  a timely maintenance.  In Kharkiv, 40% of the surveyed hedges had satisfactory condition, 35% had good, and 25%  had poor condition (the hedges became bare at the bottom or had a large number of dry branches due to improper crown formation, plants’ growth was weakened because of insufficient irrigation and untimely care).

The hedges in the general-use plantations of Kharkiv had a longitudinal type: rectilinear shape and rectangular cross-section. The only known single-row, medium-size hedge with oval cross-section was located on the 50-year anniversary of the USSR Avenue  and was comprised of Symphoricarpus albus Juss.

Woody plants of the division Magnoliophyta predominated in hedges of Kharkiv. Most of the representatives were from the families Rosaceae Juss. (3 genera, 3 species, 1 cultivar), Caprifoliacea (3 genera, 4 species), and Oleaceae (3 genera, 3 species). The families Aceaceae Lindl., Buxaceae Dumort., Cornaceae Link., and Vitaceae Lindl. were represented by one genus and one species.

The most common plant in hedges was Ligustrum vulgare L. The hedges of Ligustrum vulgare L. were located on 4 streets, two avenues, on the CPCaR territory, and on the Kharkiv State Circus Square. The hedges comprised of Syringa vulgaris L. were less common.

The following types of hedges were identified in the landscaping of the city of Kharkiv as a result of our survey: living walls, hedges and borders, which perform protective, decorative and demarcating functions. The medium-sized, trimmed hedges comprised of deciduous species of woody plants predominated among the plantations. Among the hedges in common-use plantations of Kharkiv predominated ones in satisfactory condition (40%), whereas the condition of 25% of the hedges was unsatisfactory (plants were weakened considerably, mostly bare at bottom, with many dry branches, and mechanical damage and damage caused by pests).

To improve the state of hedges in Kharkiv, and to preserve and enrich the plant species diversity it is  advisable to improve the level of agro-technical measures as well as to select plants that are drought-tolerant and resistant to the conditions of the urban environment (Carpinus betulus L., Berberis vulgaris 'Albo-variegata' and Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpure Nana', Berberis thunbergii 'Aurea', Juniperus virginiana 'Blue Arrow' and others).


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